Featured Stories » » »


All Stories » » »

Worldbook of Military Music C

WORLD BOOK OF MILITARY MUSIC C

CANADA

Military music under the French regime appears to have been limited to the sound of fifes, drums, and trumpets. When Pierre de Voyer d’Argenson, the governor of New France 1658-61, announced the intra missam on the main holy days, he had the fifes and tambours play, much to the annoyance of Bishop Laval, so Auguste Gosselin relates (Vie de Mgr de Laval, vol 1, Quebec City 1890). In the Carignan-Salières Regiment (which arrived in 1665, the first regular troops in Canada), each company had two tambours and one fife along with its 50 officers and soldiers. ‘The drums placed at the head of each company were used to keep the marching in order, to quicken it, to slow it down, and to rally to the flag all the scattered men’ (Régis Roy and Gérard Malchelosse, Le Régiment de Carignan, Montreal 1925). A few of the ‘tambours’ (drummers), Canada’s earliest military musicians, are known by name: François du Moussart, Gugnot dit Le Tambour, and Jean Casavan (sic), a trumpeter and an ancestor ofthe Casavant organ builders. After three years of frontier warfare the regiment returned to France, but some 400 men stayed in Canada.

It was only under the British regime, in the late 18th century, that larger regimental bands were sent to Canada. For about 150 years bands remained the basis of instrumental ensemble performance in Canada, and band musicians (along with church organists) were the backbone of the musical profession. Their military employment provided a basic income that could be supplemented by teaching, playing church organs, dealing in musical merchandise, or perhaps repairing instruments. The predominance of bands over orchestras and chamber ensembles was due also to the fact that band instruments can be learned more quickly than string or keyboard instruments. Furthermore, the extrovert music and vigorous sound of bands, their suitability for rousing patriotic emotions, and their usefulness in enhancing non-musical events made them popular.

The activities of the British regimental bands in Canada are documented amply in the travel literature and the diaries of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A few quotations will suffice to draw a picture. On 2 Mar 1792 Mrs Simcoe, the wife of the first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, ‘gave a dance to forty people at Quebec. The Prince was present… The Fusiliers… are all musical and like dancing, and bestow as much money as other regiments usually spend in wine, in giving balls and concerts, which makes them very popular in this place where dancing is so favourite an amusement’ (The Diary of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, 1791-1796, ed J. Ross Robertson, Toronto 1911, p 79). Elsewhere Mrs Simcoe reveals just how much was spent on the band. On 21 Nov 1791 she attended a subscription concert in Quebec City. ‘Prince Edward’s band of the 7th Fusiliers played, and some of the officers of the Fusiliers. The music was thought excellent. The band costs the Prince eight hundred pounds a year’ (ibid, p 55). The program was mostly of Pleyel’s music, including a symphony, a string quartet, and a concertante, and the Gazette (28 Nov 1791) reported that ‘Beauty and Elegance partook of the most delightful Musical Fete ever remembered in this country, it being the first Winter Concert for the season. A more numerous band has not been seen together, nor a more numerous assemblage of ladies and gentlemen could not be well gathered together’. As in most such concerts, the band musicians were joined by civilian amateurs. Thus John Lambert, in his Travels through Canada and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, & 1808 (London, 3rd edn, 1816) confirms that at the occasional private concert in Quebec City ‘the performers are some gentlemen of Quebec, assisted by a part of the regimental bands in the garrison’. Indeed, the Quebec City subscription concerts of the 1790s, the tentative Montreal orchestras of the 1890s, and the orchestras of many medium-sized cities in the mid-20th century would not have been able to function had they been unable to ‘borrow’ band musicians.

Similar instances are documented in other cities. In Montreal the first battalion band of the 60th, or Royal American, Regiment played ‘generally… for a couple of hours’ on summer evenings on a public promenade (‘Canadian Letters… 1792 and ’93,’ Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, series 3, vol 9, 1912, p 106). Seventy years later Samuel Phillips Day reported from Montreal, ‘The appearance of the troops on parade afforded much pleasure to the citizens; and when the military band performed on stated occasions in the Champ de Mars, the public was generally attracted thither’ (English America, vol 1, London 1864, p 170).

Bands outside the British regiments came into existence about 1820; early examples are the band of the Children of Peace in Hope (Sharon, Ont) and the Musique Canadienne of Quebec City. Within a few decades most towns and cities had bands, often associated with local fire brigades, temperance societies, or volunteer militia. Later in the century bands were sponsored by municipalities, by such associations as the St-Jean-Baptiste and the Orange societies, or by manufacturers for their employees, eg, the Taylor Safe Works Band of Toronto. About the turn of the century full-time Canadian military bands came into existence, and after that time the variety of ensembles grew: kiltie bands, Salvation Army bands, concert bands, broadcast and recording studio bands, Canadian Legion bands, football bands, cadet bands, and other varieties. Bands have been prominent among Canadian ambassadors of goodwill. Year after year Canadian bands have toured the USA, Europe, and other parts of the world, to participate in ceremonies, to enter contests, or to appear in festivals.

Bandmasters

The following are among the more prominent band directors1800-50 J.-C. Brauneis I, Richard Coates, Frederick Glackemeyer, Charles Sauvageau, Adam Schott, François Vézina, James Ziegler Sr

1850-1900 John Bayley, Peter Grossman, Edmond Hardy, Charles Lavallée, Ernest Lavigne, George R. Robinson, Joseph Vézina

1900-50 L.F. Addison, Giuseppe Agostini, Fred A. Bagley, Edwin Bélanger, S.G. Chamberlain, H.L. Clarke, H.C. Ford, J.-J. Gagnier, René Gagnier, Joseph-Laurent Gariépy, J.-J. Goulet, Richard B. Hayward, François J.-A. Héraly, E. Reginald Hinchey, Charles O’Neill, Paul Pratt, Émile Prévost, Léon Ringuet, William F. Robinson, Spurgeon Sheppard, Henry Slatter, John Slatter, Charles F. Thiele, Alfred E. Zealley

1950- William T. Atkins, B.G. Bogisch, Martin Boundy, Howard Cable, Morley Calvert, Leonard Camplin, Frank Connell, Arthur Delamont, Armand Ferland, A.C. Furey, Gérald Gagnier, J.M. Gayfer, Clifford Hunt, Ronald MacKay, F.M. McLeod, Jean-François Pierret, John Schoen, W. Bramwell Smith, Derek Stannard, Charles Villeneuve

Composers and Arrangers

In addition to bandmasters themselves, other Canadian composers have written for band, especially Kenneth Campbell, Claude Champagne, Donald Coakley, Maurice DeCelles, Gordon Delamont, Robert Fleming, Harry Freedman, Graham George, A.W. Hughes, Lothar Klein, L.-P. Laurendeau, Calixa Lavallée, William McCauley, Paul McIntyre, Jack Sirulnikoff, Morris Surdin, John Weinzweig, Healey Willan, and Gerhard Wuensch.

Festivals and Competitions

Band festivals can be traced back to at least 1858 in Toronto. Bands competed in 1877 in Berlin (Kitchener), Ont, and the following year 19 military and civilian bands, from as far away as Stratford and Waterloo in the west and Quebec City in the east, competed in Montreal. The Waterloo (Ont) Musical Society in 1885 held a 16-band tournament, and this was followed by others in Ontario. Later competitions included those begun at the CNE in Toronto in 1921 and the Waterloo Band Festival, begun in 1932. See also Band festivals.

Reserve Bands

Bands attached to reserve armed forces units and made up completely of spare-time musicians. The growth of Canadian reserve bands reflects the growth of the country’s reserve forces. The Militia Act of 1855, which set up a volunteer force of up to 5000, is considered the foundation of the modern Canadian armed forces. The volunteer militia had a strength of 43,500 by 1869, and the last British regular units were withdrawn in 1871 (except for naval stations in Halifax and Esquimalt, BC), the same year the first Canadian regular units were formed.

Prior to Confederation military music was provided by British army regimental bands garrisoned in Canadian towns. These bands achieved immense popularity through their appearances in concerts and parades. When the British regiments and their bands returned to England and were replaced by the Canadian volunteer militia a void was created in band music because of the difficulty in obtaining qualified musicians and bandmasters. Fortunately some remained in Canada and became active in training and organizing militia bands. Of the many ensembles formed during the next 100 years, only a few examples can be named here. The first enlisted band in Canada was that of the Independent Artillery Company of the militia in Hamilton, Ont, under the bandmaster Peter Grossman in 1856. In 1886 Grossman also formed the 13th Battalion Band, which later became known as the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Band. By 1869 there were some 46 bands in the Canadian militia. A contemporary inspection report reveals the number of musicians and comments on their proficiency, eg: ’29th Battalion Band: A fair band of 11 musicians; 45th Battalion Band: One of the best bands in the district, 21 performers; 65th Battalion Band: Brass band, 15 musicians, just organized’.

Canadian bands had a part in military action before World War I. From the time of the Fenian Raids in the late 1860s comes this account of the militia leaving to defend their homes: ‘The Volunteers of Peel county, Ont had been called out to help fight the Fenian invasion. The fife and drum struck up the tune of “Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the boys are marching,” the men began to cheer and sing and the train pulled out of Toronto and as we feared, toward the front’ (William P. Bull, From Brock to Currie, Toronto 1935). During the Northwest (Riel) Rebellion ‘the brass band 90th Regiment, Winnipeg, particularly during the last few months of the campaign, improved wonderfully and was the pride and joy of the force’ (Ernest J. Chambers, A Regimental History of The 90th Regiment Winnipeg Rifles, no publisher; no place of publication, 1906). One of Canada’s oldest and most famous bands, the band of the Queen’s Own Rifles, was formed in 1862 in Toronto. Another early militia band was that of the Royal Regiment of Canada. 

Among the volunteer militia bands associated with the outstanding 19th-century Quebec bandmaster Joseph Vézina were those of the 9th Battalion Quebec Rifles, which he led 1869-79, and the band of the ‘B’ Battery of the Royal Canadian Artillery, which he led 1879-1912 (see Musical Canada, Feb 1932). The Governor General’s Foot Guards Band of Ottawa was established in 1872 and continued to function through the two world wars and successive reorganizations of the post-war militia.

The Band of the 19th St Catharines (Ont) Regiment was formed at the turn of the century under Lieut William Peel and later became the Lincoln and Welland Band. In 1964 it performed at Bergen-Op-Zoom in the ceremonies marking the 20th anniversary of the liberation of Holland. During the centennial celebrations in 1967 the band toured northern Ontario.

Outstanding volunteer militia bands in Winnipeg have been the Royal Winnipeg Rifles, formed in 1883 and still active in 1991, and the 106th Winnipeg Light Infantry Band, organized in 1912. During World War I the bandmaster Thomas William James took the latter to England, where it merged with the 10th Battalion Band of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. It became the first Canadian band to serve on French soil.

The regimental band of the 48th Highlanders of Canada was formed in Toronto in the fall of 1892 under John Griffin and achieved fame under Capt John Slatter, its director 1896-1946. The band of Hamilton’s 91st Highlanders was formed by Harry Stares in 1903. The regiment changed its name in 1904 to the 91st Regiment Canadian Highlanders, and in 1920 it became the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada. The band was active in the 1920s and 1930s. Another prominent ensemble was the Canadian Grenadier Guards Band under Capt J.-J. Gagnier, which numbered as many as 60 performers during the 1920s and 1930s. It was disbanded in 1970.

At the beginning of World War I the Dept of Militia and Defence made no provision for regimental bands, but many militia units formed their own on an unofficial basis. In 1914 the establishment of every Canadian Expeditionary Force battalion was increased optionally by one bandmaster and 24 bandsmen. Many militia units were fortunate in securing the services of civilian bands enlisted as groups, eg, the 157th Battalion Band of Orillia, Ont. This type of patriotism was not confined to the Dominion; in Newfoundland almost the entire Ayr Burg Band joined the Newfoundland Regiment under its bandmaster, L.L. Worthington. At the military site of Camp Borden, Ont, in August 1916, 28 bands were present among over 40,000 soldiers. At that time the first evening tattoo ceremony took place in Camp Borden.

Following World War I the Westminster (later Royal Westminster) Regiment Band came into being. Under Sgt Harry Moss it became important in the musical life of New Westminster, BC. The band appeared before George VI and Queen Elizabeth during their visit in 1939, has given summer concerts in the Queen’s Park bandshell, and has played at numerous openings of the British Columbia Legislature and at the Peace Arch ceremonies in Blaine, Wash. Other noted bands of the 1920-39 period included the 1st British Columbia Regiment Band in Vancouver (Lieut C.J. Cornfield), and the London (Ont) Fusiliers (later no. 4 Royal Canadian Regiment Band).

At the outbreak of World War II militia units were not authorized to enlist their bands for overseas service. However by 1940 it was decided to recruit musicians for training centres across Canada for the purpose of forming bands. Lieut A.L. Streeter was appointed music director for reinforcement units in England.

After the war a reorganization of reserve bands was begun, and by 1951 106 30-piece military bands had been authorized. In 1990 64 bands were authorized for the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve. Of these, 10 were in the Atlantic provinces, 11 in Quebec, 25 in Ontario, 12 in the Prairie region, and 6 in British Columbia. Of those bands using standard military instrumentation 8 were Navy, 29 Army (1 staffed by unpaid volunteers), and 2 Air Reserve. There were also 23 pipe bands. and 2 bugle bands. The bands were employed in musical support duties including unit parades, formal dinners, community concerts, and a variety of local, national and international events. In 1990 several outstanding reserve band events took place including a band spectacular hosted by the 15th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery (Reserve) at Vancouver’s Queen Elizabeth Auditorium in which 150 musicians including the regular force Naden Band participated in a concert which opened with an adaptation for band of Beethoven’s Ode to Joy and concluded with a massed performance of military band and pipes and drums. A similar extravaganza in Toronto’s Roy Thomson Hall celebrated the Royal Canadian Military Institute’s 100th anniversary. Over 2000 musicians from all nine of Toronto’s reserve bands took part.

In 1979 a summertime reserve band made up of advanced musicians recruited from across Canada was formed to perform at the daily Changing of the Guard ceremony on Ottawa’s Parliament Hill. Through the variety of its performance duties and a training program which has included participation in master classes the Band of the Ceremonial Guard has offered its members outstanding opportunities for professional development.

Some of the instruments used in the early bands are entered under modern substitutes: eg, E-flat saxophone horns under Alto saxophones, B-flat saxophone horns under Tenor saxophones, and Sarrusophones under Bass (tuba).

 

Regular Armed Forces Bands

Army Bands

The first regular armed forces bands were formed in Canada in 1899. Their main purpose has been to provide music for military or public functions. Prior to the unification of the Canadian forces in 1968, 17 regular military bands of the navy, army, and air force were authorized. After unification they were reorganized into nine larger bands with a total personnel of over 300.

The first full-time army band was that of the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery formed in 1899 at Quebec Citadel with Joseph Vézina as bandmaster. It was led later by Charles O’Neill. The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Band was organized in 1905 in Kingston, Ont, with Maj Alfred Light as its leader. The first unit to receive authorization for a full-time band was the Royal Canadian Regiment. The band was formed in 1900 in Halifax by the British bandmaster Michael Ryan, was officially recognized in 1905, and took part in the coronation ceremonies for George V in 1911 and in the dedication of the Cross of Sacrifice at Washington, DC, in 1927. Lieut L.K. Harrison was appointed music director in 1924 and Lieut John Proderick in 1940. The Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band was established in 1919, when the regiment became a permanent force unit. The band was recruited by Capt Thomas William James in Toronto and later moved to Winnipeg. In 1922 the newly organized French-Canadian Regiment, the Royal 22nd (called the Van Doos because of its French name, Royal Vingt-deuxième) received authorization to establish a military band, and Capt Charles O’Neill became its conductor.

After the outbreak of World War II nine bands were authorized for fighting units overseas and in Canada. Lieut A.L. Streeter, formerly of the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band, was given the task of organizing military bands for the Canadian army. John Slatter was supervisor of army bands at Camp Borden, Ont. In 1942 there were 136 authorized active force bands in Canada and 69 overseas. The authorized band personnel numbered 5535. However, not all bands were operating or were up to strength. In 1944 10 full-time bands were maintained overseas, and 33 full-time bands and a nucleus of permanent bandsmen in spare-time bands were employed in Canada. In March 1947 all active or regular force bands were discontinued, and three bands were reconstituted – those of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (stationed in Manitoba, first at Camp Shilo, then in Winnipeg), the Royal Canadian Regiment, and the Van Doos. In 1950 the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band was re-established. The Royal Canadian Regiment Band was reorganized in 1947 in London, Ont, under Warrant Officer William Armstrong. Capt Joseph Purcell was appointed music director in 1953 and Maj Derek Stannard in 1963. The latter instituted the very popular ‘Interlude for Music’ concert series in Ontario high schools. With the 1968 unification of the forces the band was augmented, and its 65 players represented Canada in Paris at the 50th anniversary of the signing of the 1918 Armistice. In 1969 Capt John Collins became music director, and a year later the band moved from London, Ont, to Camp Gagetown, NB. It has performed in schools and public concerts across New Brunswick.

When the Korean war, coupled with the demands of NATO, brought about a great expansion of the army, full-time military bands were increased in size, and several new bands were authorized for the active force. They included the following (with year of authorization and name of first music director; rank given is not necessarily that held at the time):

1951 The Canadian Guards Band, Camp Borden, Ont, later Petawawa, Ont/Capt James Gayfer:

1952 The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Band, Kingston, Ont/Capt B. Lyons

1952 The Royal Canadian Artillery Band (Coastal), Halifax, NS/Capt E.R. Wragg

1953 The Royal Canadian Engineers Band, Vedder Crossing, BC/Maj A. Brown

1955 Royal Canadian Dragoons Band, Camp Borden, Ont/Capt E. Spooner

1955 Royal Highland Regiment of Canada Band (Black Watch), Halifax, NS/Lieut D. Start

1956 Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps Band, Montreal/Lieut G. Gagnier

1956 Lord Strathcona Horse (Royal Canadians) Band, Calgary/Capt F.N. McLeod

After the 1968 unification four army bands kept their identities: the Royal Canadian Regiment, the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band in Calgary, the Royal 22nd Band in Quebec City, and the Royal Canadian Artillery Band dissolved in Halifax and reconstituted in Montreal with a nucleus of musicians from the Black Watch Band, which had been disbanded in 1968. Officially recognized in 1969, the last-named band appeared regularly under Maj Charles Villeneuve at Man and His World, Dominion Square, and the PDA and toured Europe and the Middle East. (See also Campbell Free Band Concerts.) The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Band in Kingston, conducted by Capt Maurice Ziska, became known first as the Air Transport Command Band and later as the Vimy Band. It has performed as a ceremonial band and a symphonic concert band and has appeared in major concert halls of the world, including the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam.

Navy Bands

Prior to World War II bands in the Royal Canadian Navy were voluntary and part-time. In 1939 a permanent force navy band was recruited in Toronto under the direction of Lieut Alfred E. Zealley, who had been music director for the RCN during World War I. This band moved to HMCS Stadacona naval land base in Halifax, NS, and proved so successful that in 1940 a second naval band was approved for the base at Esquimalt, BC, under the direction of Lieut H.G. Cuthbert. By the end of the war 14 naval bands had been formed. In their place, late in 1945, naval bands were authorized for HMCS Stadacona at Halifax and HMCS Naden at Esquimalt, and Lieut Stanley Sunderland and Lieut-Cdr Cuthbert were appointed to recruit the two bands. The Naden band gave several performances during the British Columbia centennial celebrations in 1958 and has appeared at Grey Cup celebrations when these have been held in Vancouver.

Two additional bands were formed later, one at the naval air station HMCS Shearwater, at Shearwater, BC, and another at HMCS Cornwallis, at Cornwallis, NS, the new entry training base. The bandsmen were trained at the Royal Canadian Navy School of Music in HMCS Naden (see Canadian Forces School of Music), Esquimalt. Following unification in 1968 only two navy bands remained, the Canadian Forces Naden Band (then at Victoria, BC) and the Canadian Forces Stadacona Band at Halifax under Maj J.F. McGuire and later under Maj B.G. Bogisch and Capt George L. Morrison. The Stadacona band absorbed the Royal Canadian Artillery Band (Coastal) and members of the HMCS Cornwallis Band. The 40-member band has participated in the International Festival of Military Music in Maps, Belgium, in Canada Day celebrations in Brunssum, Holland, in 1972, and in the NATO festival in Stuttgart in 1974. In 1973 the band toured in Australia, New Zealand, and Samoa, and in 1976 it performed in the USSR. In Victoria the Naden Band performs the traditional Sunset Ceremony at the Legislative Buildings.

Air Force Bands

An Air Force Band was formed at Camp Borden under Frank Tucker in 1929. During World War II several Royal Canadian Air Force bands were created from volunteer ensembles and from the ranks of professional musicians. The largest was the Central Band of the RCAF, established in 1940 and maintained at Ottawa under Flying Officer E.A. Kirkwood. Other bands included the Tactical Air Command Band, under Flight Lieut Carl Friberg, which served in Gander, Nfld, Montreal, and Edmonton. The first contingent of air force musicians – the RCAF Overseas Headquarters Band – arrived in England in 1942 under the direction of Sqn Ldr Martin Boundy. It was followed shortly afterwards by the No. 6 Bomber Group Band under Warrant Officer Clifford Hunt and the Bournemouth band directed by Flight Sergt Vowden. An extremely popular dance orchestra, the RCAF Streamliners, drawn from the headquarters band, appeared throughout England.

The cessation of hostilities in 1945 brought about a reduction in personnel in air force bands, but the Central Band of the RCAF continued to flourish. The RCAF Tactical Air Command Band was known briefly as the Northwest Air Command Band and was stationed at Winnipeg in 1946. In 1947 it moved to Air Force Headquarters in Edmonton and reverted to the old name. In 1946 the Training Command Band was organized by Flight Lieut Clifford Hunt in Toronto. It was renamed the Air Transport Command Band in 1949 while a new Training Command Band was organized in Winnipeg. By 1964 only the Central Band of the RCAF in Ottawa and the Training Command Band in Winnipeg remained in service. After the unification of the armed services in 1968 the Training Command Band was joined by members of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery band in Winnipeg, and in 1975 it was renamed the Air Command Band (director, Capt Terence Barnes).

The Central Band of the RCAF in Ottawa was renamed the National Band of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968 and the Central Band of the Canadian Forces in 1970. The band has toured Europe frequently and has made appearances at the Bern International Music Festival and at several NATO music festivals. It has toured in Canada and has appeared regularly in Ottawa at welcoming ceremonies for visiting heads of state and other dignitaries including the Pope and US presidents Reagan and Bush. During Reagan’s 1981 visit the band premiered Louis Applebaum’s Presidential Fanfares. Nine members of the band constitute the Canadian Forces String Ensemble (in 1991, 6 violins, cello, bass, and piano) which has regularly performed at functions of the Governor General and has been available as required to the Secretary of State and agencies of the Canadian government. On special occasions the ensemble has been augmented by flute and clarinet.

The Central Band played on Parliament Hill each summer for the daily changing of the guard ceremonies until 1979 when those duties were assumed by the Band of the Ceremonial Guard, a summertime reserve unit.

Ceremonies

Canadian regular force bands have travelled extensively throughout the world and have maintained active performing schedules in their home regions, appearing in concerts, parades, and tattoos, often before Canadian service personnel stationed abroad. In 1962 six bands performed at the World’s Fair in Seattle, Wash, for a massed band tattoo. During Canada’s centennial year (1967) several bands played an active role in the 147 performances of the Canadian Armed Forces Tattoo in 40 cities across Canada. The following are typical of activities after 1979. The Stadacona Band’s four-piece combo toured Norway, Sweden, and Denmark in 1981. The full band which has been the regular pit band for the annual Nova Scotia Tattoo visited Marseilles, France in 1983, in 1990 celebrated the 50th anniversary of music in the Canadian Navy and toured Europe giving special concerts at the International Music Parade in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Royal Canadian Regiment Band was the ceremonial band for the Silver Broom curling championships in Fredericton, NB in 1980, was duty band in New Brunswick for the royal visit of 1984, and in Holland took part in celebrations to mark the 40th anniversary of the liberation. The Royal 22nd Regiment band began daily summertime Changing of the Guard Ceremonies at the Quebec Citadel in 1981, performed on the Plains of Abraham on behalf of the Commission of the Battlefields in 1988 and in 1989 gave several performances in honour of their regiment’s 75th anniversary. The Royal Canadian Artillery band in 1988 fulfilled 245 engagements, performing before some 107,000 spectators in Canada and Europe, then in 1989 provided the nucleus for a cross-Canada tour of Canadian Forces musicians. The Vimy band in 1983 in London, Ont premiered Pioneers by Kingston composer Norman Sherman, and in 1987 travelled to Europe, appearing at the Mons Music Festival, the NATO Music Festival in Kaiserslautern, Germany, and at a military festival in Saumer, France. The Air Command Band performed at the International Music Camp at International Falls, Minn in 1982, appeared at the Albertville Military Tattoo in France in 1983, and appeared across Canada in celebration of the RCAF’s 60th anniversary in 1984. The Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry band toured Australia in 1988 to help celebrate that country’s 200th anniversary, taking part in a military tattoo and playing concerts in Hobart and Launceston, Tasmania and in Melbourne, appearing before some six million spectators in all. The Naden Band, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1990, released a recording titled The Golden Tribute and visited Vladivostok in the USSR

Authorized Marches

The following list, in order of precedence, indicates the official marches of the Canadian forces, both regular and reserve:

 

The Canadian Navy

Heart of Oak

The Canadian Army

Artillery

The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Royal Artillery Slow March, The British Grenadiers, Bonnie Dundee, Keel Row

Armoured Branch

The Royal Canadian Dragoons Monsieur Beaucaire, Light of Foot

Lord Strathcona’s Horse Soldiers of the Queen

12⊇ Régiment blindé du Canada Marianne s’en va-t-au moulin

The Governor General’s Horse Guards Men of Harlech

The Elgin Regiment I’m Ninety-Five

The Ontario Regiment John Peel

The Queen’s York Rangers (1st American Regiment) Braganza

Sherbrooke Hussars Regimental March of the Sherbrooke Hussars

1st Hussars Bonnie Dundee (for military band)

The Prince Edward Island Regiment Old Solomon Levi

The Royal Canadian Hussarss (Montreal) Men of Harlech

The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught’s Own) I’m Ninety-Five

The South Alberta Light Horse A Southerly Wind and a Cloudy Sky

The Saskatchewan Dragoons Punjab

The King’s Own Calvary Regiment (Calgary) Colonel Bogey

 

The British Columbia Dragoons Fare Thee Well Iniskilling

The Fort Gary Horse El Abanico

Le Régiment de Hull La Marche de la Victoire

The Windsor Regiment My Boy Willie

Artillery Branch

The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Royal Artillery Slow March, The British Grenadiers, Bonnie Dundee, Keel Row,

49th (Sault St Marie) Field Artillery Regiment A Hundred Pipers

 

Military Engineering Branch

Wings, The British Grenadiers

 

Communications and Electronics Branch

1st Canadian Signals Regiment Corp March of the Royal Canadian Signals ‘Begone Dull Care’

Communications and Electronics Branch March Mercury

 

Infantry Branch

The Royal Canadian Regiment The Royal Canadian Regiment (Tune: St Catharines)

Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Medley: Has Anyone Seen the Colonel?, It’s a Long Way to Tipperary, and Mademoiselle from Armentières

Royal 22e Régiment (The Van Doos) Vive la Canadienne

Canadian Airborne Regiment Milanolo

The Canadian Grenadier Guards The British Grenadiers

The Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada The Buffs

The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Highland Laddie

Les Voltigeurs de Québec Les Voltigeurs de Québec

The Royal Regiment of Canada British Grenadiers followed by Here’s to the Maiden

The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) The Mountain Rose

The Princess of Wales’ Own Regiment The Buffs

The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment I’m Ninety-Five

The Lincoln and Welland Regiment The Lincolnshire Poacher

The Highland Fusiliers of Canada The Highland Laddie and Seann Triubhas (Whistle o’er the lave o’t)

The Grey and Simcoe Foresters The 31st Greys

The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment) The Campbells are Coming

The Brockville Rifles Bonnie Dundee

The Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment The Highland Laddie

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders Bonnie Dundee

Les Fusiliers du St-Laurent Rêves Canadiens

Le Régiment de la Chaudière Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse

Les Fusiliers Mont Royal The Jockey of York

The Princess Louise Fusiliers The British Grenadiers

The Royal New Brunswick Regiment A Hundred Pipers

The West Nova Scotia Regiment God Bless the Prince of Wales

The Nova Scotia Highlanders The Sweet Maid of Glenaruel

Le Régiment de Maisonneuve Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse

The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa The Piobaireachd of Donald Dhu

The Royal Winnipeg Rifles Old Solomon Levi

The Essex and Kent Scottish The Highland Laddie

48th Highlanders of Canada The Highland Laddie

Le Régiment du Saguenay Le Régiment du Saguenay

The Algonquin Regiment We Lead, Others Follow

The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada The Campbells are Coming

The Lake Superior Scottish Regiment The Highland Laddie

The North Saskatchewan Regiment The Jockey of York

The Royal Regina Rifles Lutzow’s Wild Hunt

The Rocky Mountain Rangers Meeting of the Waters

The Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada The Piobaireachd of Donald Dhu

The Royal Westminster Regiment The Maple Leaf Forever

The Calgary Highlanders The Highland Laddie

Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke Queen City

The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada The Piobaireachd of Donald Dhu

The Canadian Scottish Regiment Blue Bonnets Over the Border

The Royal Montreal Regiment Ça Ira

2nd Battalion, The Irish Regiment Garry Owen

The Toronto Scottish Blue Bonnets Over the Border

The Royal Newfoundland Regiment The Banks of Newfoundland

 

The Canadian Air Force

RCAF Marchpast

Logistics Branch

March of the Logistics Branch

Medical Branch

The Farmer’s Boy

Dental Branch

 

Marchpast of the Royal Canadian Dental Corps

Land Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Branch

REME Corps March Past

Chaplain Branch

Onward, Christian Soldiers

Security Branch

Thunderbird

Legal Branch

When I Good Friends Was Called to the Bar

Administration Branch

 

Old Comrades

Personnel Selection Branch

Semper Intelligere

Physical Education Branch

Allsports March

Intelligence Branch

E Tenebris Lux

The Royal Canadian Military Institute

 

 

 

Chilean Military Bands

Over the years, the Symphonic Band of the air force of Chile has projected the image of the institution through its multiple presentations, delivering, not only culture, but that joy and excitement to the community.

With numerous recitals at far and wide throughout the national territory, it is one of the letters that the institution has to integrate into the community. Cities, towns, municipalities and schools are part of the public that following each presentation ovaciona these musicians.

Perhaps the most remarkable and at the same time recognized it is the opening night of the musical weeks of Frutillar, and this is the only day where the event entries are exhausted. Such recognition is a sample of the beloved and admired this grouping in the country.

This band was born in the artillery air group, June 16, 1934. Sixteen members of this unit participated in the project while that at the same time, musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Chile amenizaban events in the aviation school officers Casino. The number members was increasing with the passage of time and its success also, with the contribution of youth and the talents of musicians.

It was from 1979 that he moved towards a more professional route, thanks to the recruitment of the director of bands in the German police, Lieutenant Colonel Artur Max Rosin. The purpose was to turn the group into a body of cultural dissemination of the air force of Chile. For the first time they appeared on recordings and in the musical weeks of Frutillar together with the Symphony Orchestra of the University of Chile.

Over the years the band has been recognized by the excellence of its musicians, who rehearse intensively to improve performances each day. Without a doubt, one of the factors that make be acclaimed in every concert is its versatility and quality, able to pass through codes of classical music, popular songs and bands of films, with the ease that only pros know. Currently, the band is led by the well known band master, Negri Fabrizzio.

Regular Army Bands :Ejército de Chile – Actividades Artísticas y Culturales

Air Force Bands: Banda Sinfónica de la Fuerza Aérea de Chile

 

Composers Original works for Band

Prominent composers for concert band

Early/Middle twentieth century

Some of the most important names in establishing literature written specifically for concert band in the early and middle 20th century were:

 

 

Howard Cable

Percy Grainger

Paul Hindemith

Gustav Holst

Gordon Jacob

Arnold Schoenberg – solely for his Theme and Variations, op. 43a (1943)

John Philip Sousa

Igor Stravinsky

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Late twentieth century through the present

Over the last forty years, many composers have written major new works for wind ensemble. Some of these composers have risen to the forefront as being particularly important in the concert band’s development. Among these:

 

 Samuel Adler

Leslie Bassett

Warren Benson

John Barnes Chance

Michael Colgrass

John Corigliano

David Gillingham

Morton Gould

David Holsinger

Karel Husa

Anne McGinty

Johan de Meij

Jonathan Newman

Vincent Persichetti

 

Alfred Reed

H. Owen Reed

Gunther Schuller

Joseph Schwantner

Claude T. Smith

Robert W. Smith

Philip Sparke

 

Frank Ticheli

David Del Tredici

Fisher Tull,    James Swearingen may also be considered as an important contributor to modern concert band music

Corps of Army Music  

The Corps of Army Music is a corps of the British Army. It was formed in 1994 as an umbrella organisation to oversee the 29 new permanent army bands formed following Options for Change. In 2006, the regular army bands were re-organised again, with a reduction in total numbers:

The four bands of the Royal Armoured Corps amalgamated into two.

The Band of the Royal Irish Regiment disbanded from regular service.

The Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland formed by amalgamation of the Highland Band and Lowland Band.

The new Minden Band of the Queen’s Division formed by amalgamation of the Minden Band and the Normandy Band.

The new Band of the King’s Division formed by amalgamation of the Waterloo Band and the Normandy Band.

The new Band of the Prince of Wales’ Division formed by amalgamation of the Clive Band and the Lucknow Band.

It employs 1,100 musicians. The minimum term of service is four years, and the corps promotes itself to potential employees as a good opportunity to obtain a salaried post as a musician, something which is generally hard to find, possibly before embarking on a civilian career in music. A wide range of music is performed, not just marching band music.

Regular Army bands

Cavalry Infantry Support Arms Services

Band of the Life Guards Band of the Grenadier Guards Royal Artillery Band Band of the Royal Logistic Corps

Band of the Blues and Royals Band of the Coldstream Guards Band of the Corps of Royal Engineers Band of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers

Heavy Cavalry and Cambrai Band Band of the Scots Guards Band of the Royal Corps of Signals Band of the Adjutant General’s Corps

Light Cavalry Band Band of the Irish Guards Band of the Army Air Corps 

 Band of the Welsh Guards  

 Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland 

 Minden Band of the Queen’s Division 

 Band of the King’s Division 

 Band of the Prince of Wales’ Division 

 Band and Bugles of The Rifles 

 Band of the Parachute Regiment 

 Gurkha Band 

(2)Corps of Drums/Pipes and Drums

In addition to the regular bands, most infantry battalions maintain their own musicians, either in the form of the Corps of Drums (for English and Welsh regiments) or the Pipes and Drums (for Scottish, Irish and Gurkha regiments). The Corps of Drums of an infantry battalion will usually feature drummers, buglers and flautists, while the Pipes and Drums will be formed of bagpipers and drummers. These bands are descended from the drummers and pipers who led infantry regiments in columns, and who used their drums or bugles to sound orders on the battlefield. Unlike the regular bands, these are first and foremost fully trained fighting soldiers who form one of the battalion’s specialist units, such as the mortar, anti-tank or machine-gun platoon.

(3)Territorial Army Bands

Prior to Options for Change and the formation of the Corps of Army Music, most regiments, especially infantry regiments, maintained their own bands. This tradition has since passed to the Territorial Army, who maintain and operate regimental bands in the names of infantry regiments:

 

Lowland Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland

Band of the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment (Queen’s and Royal Hampshires)

Band of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers

Band of the Royal Anglian Regiment

Band of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment

Band of the The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment)

Band of the Royal Welsh – the only all-brass band remaining within the British military

Band of the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment (King’s Lancashire and Border)

Band of the Yorkshire Regiment (14th/15th, 19th & 33rd/76th Foot)

Band of 51st (Scottish) Brigade

The Staffords Band

The Salamanca Band of The Rifles

The Waterloo Band of The Rifles

Band of the Honourable Artillery Company

150 (Northumbrian) Transport Regiment, Royal Logistic Corps Band

Regimental Band (Inns of Court and City Yeomanry) of the Royal Yeomanry

Lancashire Artillery Volunteers Band

Territorial Band of the Royal Engineers

 At the time of writing, April 2011, the TA Bands have retained their independence from the Corps of Army Music. There are also several TA Bands that are privately sponsored within the army.

Croatian  Military bands

Symphonic Wind Orchestra of the CAF, the Croatian representative orchestra, founded in 1991. as a continuation of the tradition of musical composition in the Croatian military forces. Professional construction of the Croatian Armed Forces made a precondition for the establishment of such a body of music. Over the years the orchestra has had the following names: Representative Orchestra National Guard, Army Symphonic Wind Orchestra, the Orchestra and the Army at the end of the Symphonic Wind Orchestra of the CAF. The process of creation is gradually unfolded, and began forming the Representative Orchestra of the National Guard 1991st year.

Beginnings

Representative Orchestra of the National Guard was established at the General Headquarters.  It  was the conscripts made up of professional musicians-reservists who felt that their musical abilities would contribute to creating the future of the Croatian Army Orchestra, and thus, in the midst of war, to contribute to the creation of the Croatian state. The band was led by esteemed conductor and musician, Joseph Jankovic. The  first public performance, the orchestra gave was on parade with the National Guard on  28th May 1991at the stadium on Kranjčevićeva Street in Zagreb.

The Army Military Band was formed at the end of 1991 within the Ministry of Defence in order to be composed of employees – officers, NCOs and soldiers of the Croatian army. Among the peoplewhom were important in  creating the  military band were  Kaučić Francis, Stephen and Joseph Katalenić Cmuk. The first rehearsals were held in August at  Cesarec Hall in Zagreb, and later on the fourth floor of the HV Zvonimir in Zvonimirova 12.

The  Orchestra made their first public performance in Croatia, and  ceremonial occasion was the  performance held On 14 January 1992 at the presidential palace, on the occasion of the visit of President of Italy Franccesca Cosige Republic of Croatia with the Croatian recognition by Italy.

First public auditions

During 1992. The  Orchestra performed  on the battlefields around the country. Its purpose is to maintain a high degree of combat morale of Croatian soldiers. The  Orchestra was led Captain Joseph Cmuk who  prepared the  musicians for the first concert the first Christmas concert 1991.

1 December 1992 the band  held their first public auditions. Turnout was high, and the orchestra received fifteen new, highly educated musicians – students and graduates of musicians from Music Academy in Zagreb. All of the new members had a  desire to help develop the  military orchestra and create a worthy  representative body of the Croatian army.Their desire was to Introduce a new, more demanding repertoire and showcase   works by Croatian authors such as suite from the era of the Joker by  James Gotovca and in battle, to battle! Ivana pl. Zajc.

 The  Minister of Defence on  May 1st  1995. Revised the military band establishment by amalgamating the  Representative Orchestra National Guard and Military Band of the Army and renaming the organization the  Army Symphonic Wind Orchestra, based in Zagreb. This ensemble  would be able to  meet all military and protocol needs. The orchestra Commander  appointed was  – Tedi Lušetić , deputy Domagoj Franić, chief conductor and leader Mladen Tarbuk Marko Poklepović,

 The Orchestra became one of the leading musical authorities in Croatia. In addition to protocol tasks, the symphonic season at the Concert Hall Lisinski, the Orchestra is developing an extensive concert activities across the Croatian. The backbone of the repertoire consists of original compositions for the military band , the Croatian premiere of the world’s musical heritage, the works of contemporary composers and the premiere of Croatian authors. Within the orchestra, there are  a number of chamber groups with different performances of chamber music season in the Croatian Music Institute, including  the brass band, big band. Besides the chief conductor of the Orchestra   world-renowned conductors  have appeared including Dragan Sremec, Tomislav Uhlik, Miljenko Prohaska, Vladimir Kranjčević, Pavle Dešpalj, Niksa Bareza, Vjekoslav Sutej, Uroš Lajovic, K. Šipuš, Walter Hilgers as well as many soloists: Radovan Cavallin clarinetist, oboist Branko Mihanovic, horn Radovan Vlatkovic, violinist Anđelko Krpan, Dragan Sremec saxophonist, pianist Nina Patarčec, trumpeter Stanko Arnold, Todd tubist Rošker, trombonist Branimir Slokar. Many Croatian composers have written new works for orchestra, among them Anđelko Klobučar, Anđelko Igrec, Marko Ruždjak, Mladen Tarbuk, Tomislav Uhlik, Igor Kuljerić, Zoran Juranić, K. Seletković, Branimir Lazarin, Sanda Majurec crafts, Olja Jelaska, Antun Tomislav Saban, Davor Bobic, Josip Magdic, Vjekoslav Nježić, Frano Djurovic, Zoran Juranić, Berislav Šipuš, Davorin Kempf, Ruben Radica, Stanko Horvat et al.

In addition to concerts in the musical season, the most important orchestra performances achieved on the Croatian Summer festivals (Rovinj, Zadar, Zagreb, Zadar, Hvar), Varazdin Baroque Evenings, the Eucharistic celebration on the occasion of the arrival of Pope John Paul II. in Zagreb 1995. and 1998., the International Music Festival in Opatija and Pula, the opening of the Dubrovnik Summer Festival 1997th and 1998. as well as Music Biennale Zagreb, on tour in Budapest, 1997th, the international festival Moscow autumn 1997., in Karlsruhe 1998th and Brussels 1999th year.

Mature stage

In addition to concert activities, the Orchestra has successfully performed at numerous international festival of military orchestras Tattoo’s (Cologne, Berlin, Stuttgart, Salzburg, Albertville, Neuchatel, Karlsruhe, Debrecen, Saumur, Rotterdam, Krakow …), where he choreographed performances regularly motivatethe enthusiasm of the audience.

In addition to numerous recordings for Croatian Television, the orchestra recorded for the American label Honey Rock. In December 1996. published the first album called Christmas Dream, in October 1997. CD Croatian Mass. (A. Klobučar: Pontifical Mass and F. pl. Lučić: Misa Jubilaris), 2004. CD coming Croatian marches in 2005. released CD”homeland”with love, taken together with Klapo HRM”SV. Juraj”.

Orchestra has received a number of Croatian Music Award: Milka Trnina for the ultimate musical achievements in 1997. and award Lisinski Croatian Composers’ Society to perform works by Croatian composers  in 1998

In 2000    Mladen Tarbuk  is appointed thechief  conductor  .and the orchestra entered a new phase in its development, while maintaining a successful musical of the season and a great protocol activities.

Symphonic Wind Orchestra Armed Forces today

In 2003. commander Miroslav Orchestra takes Vukovojac-Dugan, and as chief of the conductor 2003rd comes Tomislav Fačini. Orchestra Leader becomes Mario Komazin.

 The Orchestra continues an  intense activity on protocol and other tasks in the Armed Forces, a gradually stronger and concert activities. With the concert season in Zagreb, and continue to perform at concerts and festivals around the Croatian:

The Navy Orchestra

The Navy Band is an important factor in the musical life of the city of Split and Dalmatia. Founded in the days of the war they have developed into a  prominent promoter of the cultural life of the community in which it originated.

The Navy Orchestra fosters a very distinctive style, is therefore not surprising that in their designs can meet a wide range of compositions from different musical forms and styles. In doing so, the Navy  band always highlights o the Croatian musical heritage, especially the Dalmatian melodies with which are  tied Nerskidivo.  The military Orchestra is distinguished by an enviable stability of intonation, especially  it`s rhythmic motility. This is the reason that in their concerts and numerous public appearances they have  managed to achieve a fruitful collaboration with the most prominent vocal and instrumental soloists, and the listener constantly gain the confidence and cordial response. Hundreds of actual concerts and other performances not least, testify to the reputation of the ensemble and provide a solid warranty and no doubt confidence in the future of this elite body of music. Since 2008 the orchestra is part of the Navy Armed Forces Orchestra.

 

Czech Military bands

Central music of the CZECH REPUBLIC was founded. December 1950 as the representative body in the field of military brass music. The new Orchestra became a separate unit within the infantry battalion “of the Prague uprising” and had 120 musicians.  At that time there consisted three groups of a smaller number of musicians in the Czech Air Force. It was possible  if necessary,  to connect and create jointly a larger Orchestra. Thus the Founding of the Central band of the Czech military coincided with the emergence of the CZECH REPUBLIC.  The development of Czech (military) brass music represented a unique era in the history of Czech military bands, the first real opportunity to meet the highest artistic ideals. Indeed, the Orchestra, which was instituted, has become a quality military ensemble. The conditions were created for the systematic and deliberate work in the very beginning it became    a unique implementation of the ancient and long-time dream of many generations of military leaders and musicians.

The dream was to create a professional concert wind Orchestra, which was capable of a high artistic level to be presented to the broadest domestic and the foreign public the very best of Czech and world band music literature. After all, the quality of the Czech military musicians was legendary from the beginning of the 18th. Century. In addition to the application of Czech musicians in military music throughout the monarchy we find significant traces of Czech military musicians in Mexico as well as in the American civil war, Great Britain, Russia, Turkey and Egypt. A popular venue of Czech military musicians was Serbia and Montenegro. In the Austro-Hungarian army several thousand served continuously as musicians. To name a few of them, the distinguished  Rudolf Newcomer, and above all the renowned   Julius Fučík, these and many other unique musicians have added to the legacy of Czech military musicians.

During the 60 years since its inception, the Orchestra and its members to overcome the many reorganisation or fundamental changes. However, the emphasis was always on the concert activity and artistic evolution, which became a crucial element for the unique status that the Orchestra gradually created. Their prestige as one of the world’s best brass orchestras, the CZECH REPUBLIC very much vindicated in comparison with foreign military orchestras in the domestic and foreign festivals and shows. Among the most prestigious belonged, in particular, participation in festivals in Norfolk (USA, 2009), Quebec (Canada), in Oslo (Norway, 1999) and Stockholm (2006). In addition, their music is often performed in Germany, Great Britain, Austria, Poland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Hungary.

 

 

 

History

Military music under the French regime appears to have been limited to the sound of fifes, drums, and trumpets. When Pierre de Voyer d’Argenson, the governor of New France 1658-61, announced the intra missam on the main holy days, he had the fifes and tambours play, much to the annoyance of Bishop Laval, so Auguste Gosselin relates (Vie de Mgr de Laval, vol 1, Quebec City 1890). In the Carignan-Salières Regiment (which arrived in 1665, the first regular troops in Canada), each company had two tambours and one fife along with its 50 officers and soldiers. ‘The drums placed at the head of each company were used to keep the marching in order, to quicken it, to slow it down, and to rally to the flag all the scattered men’ (Régis Roy and Gérard Malchelosse, Le Régiment de Carignan, Montreal 1925). A few of the ‘tambours’ (drummers), Canada’s earliest military musicians, are known by name: François du Moussart, Gugnot dit Le Tambour, and Jean Casavan (sic), a trumpeter and an ancestor ofthe Casavant organ builders. After three years of frontier warfare the regiment returned to France, but some 400 men stayed in Canada.

It was only under the British regime, in the late 18th century, that larger regimental bands were sent to Canada. For about 150 years bands remained the basis of instrumental ensemble performance in Canada, and band musicians (along with church organists) were the backbone of the musical profession. Their military employment provided a basic income that could be supplemented by teaching, playing church organs, dealing in musical merchandise, or perhaps repairing instruments. The predominance of bands over orchestras and chamber ensembles was due also to the fact that band instruments can be learned more quickly than string or keyboard instruments. Furthermore, the extrovert music and vigorous sound of bands, their suitability for rousing patriotic emotions, and their usefulness in enhancing non-musical events made them popular.

The activities of the British regimental bands in Canada are documented amply in the travel literature and the diaries of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. A few quotations will suffice to draw a picture. On 2 Mar 1792 Mrs Simcoe, the wife of the first lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada, ‘gave a dance to forty people at Quebec. The Prince was present… The Fusiliers… are all musical and like dancing, and bestow as much money as other regiments usually spend in wine, in giving balls and concerts, which makes them very popular in this place where dancing is so favourite an amusement’ (The Diary of Mrs. John Graves Simcoe, 1791-1796, ed J. Ross Robertson, Toronto 1911, p 79). Elsewhere Mrs Simcoe reveals just how much was spent on the band. On 21 Nov 1791 she attended a subscription concert in Quebec City. ‘Prince Edward’s band of the 7th Fusiliers played, and some of the officers of the Fusiliers. The music was thought excellent. The band costs the Prince eight hundred pounds a year’ (ibid, p 55). The program was mostly of Pleyel’s music, including a symphony, a string quartet, and a concertante, and the Gazette (28 Nov 1791) reported that ‘Beauty and Elegance partook of the most delightful Musical Fete ever remembered in this country, it being the first Winter Concert for the season. A more numerous band has not been seen together, nor a more numerous assemblage of ladies and gentlemen could not be well gathered together’. As in most such concerts, the band musicians were joined by civilian amateurs. Thus John Lambert, in his Travels through Canada and the United States of North America in the Years 1806, 1807, & 1808 (London, 3rd edn, 1816) confirms that at the occasional private concert in Quebec City ‘the performers are some gentlemen of Quebec, assisted by a part of the regimental bands in the garrison’. Indeed, the Quebec City subscription concerts of the 1790s, the tentative Montreal orchestras of the 1890s, and the orchestras of many medium-sized cities in the mid-20th century would not have been able to function had they been unable to ‘borrow’ band musicians.

Similar instances are documented in other cities. In Montreal the first battalion band of the 60th, or Royal American, Regiment played ‘generally… for a couple of hours’ on summer evenings on a public promenade (‘Canadian Letters… 1792 and ’93,’ Canadian Antiquarian and Numismatic Journal, series 3, vol 9, 1912, p 106). Seventy years later Samuel Phillips Day reported from Montreal, ‘The appearance of the troops on parade afforded much pleasure to the citizens; and when the military band performed on stated occasions in the Champ de Mars, the public was generally attracted thither’ (English America, vol 1, London 1864, p 170).

Bands outside the British regiments came into existence about 1820; early examples are the band of the Children of Peace in Hope (Sharon, Ont) and the Musique Canadienne of Quebec City. Within a few decades most towns and cities had bands, often associated with local fire brigades, temperance societies, or volunteer militia. Later in the century bands were sponsored by municipalities, by such associations as the St-Jean-Baptiste and the Orange societies, or by manufacturers for their employees, eg, the Taylor Safe Works Band of Toronto. About the turn of the century full-time Canadian military bands came into existence, and after that time the variety of ensembles grew: kiltie bands, Salvation Army bands, concert bands, broadcast and recording studio bands, Canadian Legion bands, football bands, cadet bands, and other varieties. Bands have been prominent among Canadian ambassadors of goodwill. Year after year Canadian bands have toured the USA, Europe, and other parts of the world, to participate in ceremonies, to enter contests, or to appear in festivals.

Bandmasters

The following are among the more prominent band directors1800-50 J.-C. Brauneis I, Richard Coates, Frederick Glackemeyer, Charles Sauvageau, Adam Schott, François Vézina, James Ziegler Sr

1850-1900 John Bayley, Peter Grossman, Edmond Hardy, Charles Lavallée, Ernest Lavigne, George R. Robinson, Joseph Vézina

1900-50 L.F. Addison, Giuseppe Agostini, Fred A. Bagley, Edwin Bélanger, S.G. Chamberlain, H.L. Clarke, H.C. Ford, J.-J. Gagnier, René Gagnier, Joseph-Laurent Gariépy, J.-J. Goulet, Richard B. Hayward, François J.-A. Héraly, E. Reginald Hinchey, Charles O’Neill, Paul Pratt, Émile Prévost, Léon Ringuet, William F. Robinson, Spurgeon Sheppard, Henry Slatter, John Slatter, Charles F. Thiele, Alfred E. Zealley

1950- William T. Atkins, B.G. Bogisch, Martin Boundy, Howard Cable, Morley Calvert, Leonard Camplin, Frank Connell, Arthur Delamont, Armand Ferland, A.C. Furey, Gérald Gagnier, J.M. Gayfer, Clifford Hunt, Ronald MacKay, F.M. McLeod, Jean-François Pierret, John Schoen, W. Bramwell Smith, Derek Stannard, Charles Villeneuve

Composers and Arrangers

In addition to bandmasters themselves, other Canadian composers have written for band, especially Kenneth Campbell, Claude Champagne, Donald Coakley, Maurice DeCelles, Gordon Delamont, Robert Fleming, Harry Freedman, Graham George, A.W. Hughes, Lothar Klein, L.-P. Laurendeau, Calixa Lavallée, William McCauley, Paul McIntyre, Jack Sirulnikoff, Morris Surdin, John Weinzweig, Healey Willan, and Gerhard Wuensch.

Festivals and Competitions

Band festivals can be traced back to at least 1858 in Toronto. Bands competed in 1877 in Berlin (Kitchener), Ont, and the following year 19 military and civilian bands, from as far away as Stratford and Waterloo in the west and Quebec City in the east, competed in Montreal. The Waterloo (Ont) Musical Society in 1885 held a 16-band tournament, and this was followed by others in Ontario. Later competitions included those begun at the CNE in Toronto in 1921 and the Waterloo Band Festival, begun in 1932. See also Band festivals.

Reserve Bands

Bands attached to reserve armed forces units and made up completely of spare-time musicians. The growth of Canadian reserve bands reflects the growth of the country’s reserve forces. The Militia Act of 1855, which set up a volunteer force of up to 5000, is considered the foundation of the modern Canadian armed forces. The volunteer militia had a strength of 43,500 by 1869, and the last British regular units were withdrawn in 1871 (except for naval stations in Halifax and Esquimalt, BC), the same year the first Canadian regular units were formed.

Prior to Confederation military music was provided by British army regimental bands garrisoned in Canadian towns. These bands achieved immense popularity through their appearances in concerts and parades. When the British regiments and their bands returned to England and were replaced by the Canadian volunteer militia a void was created in band music because of the difficulty in obtaining qualified musicians and bandmasters. Fortunately some remained in Canada and became active in training and organizing militia bands. Of the many ensembles formed during the next 100 years, only a few examples can be named here. The first enlisted band in Canada was that of the Independent Artillery Company of the militia in Hamilton, Ont, under the bandmaster Peter Grossman in 1856. In 1886 Grossman also formed the 13th Battalion Band, which later became known as the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Band. By 1869 there were some 46 bands in the Canadian militia. A contemporary inspection report reveals the number of musicians and comments on their proficiency, eg: ’29th Battalion Band: A fair band of 11 musicians; 45th Battalion Band: One of the best bands in the district, 21 performers; 65th Battalion Band: Brass band, 15 musicians, just organized’.

Canadian bands had a part in military action before World War I. From the time of the Fenian Raids in the late 1860s comes this account of the militia leaving to defend their homes: ‘The Volunteers of Peel county, Ont had been called out to help fight the Fenian invasion. The fife and drum struck up the tune of “Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the boys are marching,” the men began to cheer and sing and the train pulled out of Toronto and as we feared, toward the front’ (William P. Bull, From Brock to Currie, Toronto 1935). During the Northwest (Riel) Rebellion ‘the brass band 90th Regiment, Winnipeg, particularly during the last few months of the campaign, improved wonderfully and was the pride and joy of the force’ (Ernest J. Chambers, A Regimental History of The 90th Regiment Winnipeg Rifles, no publisher; no place of publication, 1906). One of Canada’s oldest and most famous bands, the band of the Queen’s Own Rifles, was formed in 1862 in Toronto. Another early militia band was that of the Royal Regiment of Canada. 

Among the volunteer militia bands associated with the outstanding 19th-century Quebec bandmaster Joseph Vézina were those of the 9th Battalion Quebec Rifles, which he led 1869-79, and the band of the ‘B’ Battery of the Royal Canadian Artillery, which he led 1879-1912 (see Musical Canada, Feb 1932). The Governor General’s Foot Guards Band of Ottawa was established in 1872 and continued to function through the two world wars and successive reorganizations of the post-war militia.

The Band of the 19th St Catharines (Ont) Regiment was formed at the turn of the century under Lieut William Peel and later became the Lincoln and Welland Band. In 1964 it performed at Bergen-Op-Zoom in the ceremonies marking the 20th anniversary of the liberation of Holland. During the centennial celebrations in 1967 the band toured northern Ontario.

Outstanding volunteer militia bands in Winnipeg have been the Royal Winnipeg Rifles, formed in 1883 and still active in 1991, and the 106th Winnipeg Light Infantry Band, organized in 1912. During World War I the bandmaster Thomas William James took the latter to England, where it merged with the 10th Battalion Band of the Canadian Expeditionary Force. It became the first Canadian band to serve on French soil.

The regimental band of the 48th Highlanders of Canada was formed in Toronto in the fall of 1892 under John Griffin and achieved fame under Capt John Slatter, its director 1896-1946. The band of Hamilton’s 91st Highlanders was formed by Harry Stares in 1903. The regiment changed its name in 1904 to the 91st Regiment Canadian Highlanders, and in 1920 it became the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada. The band was active in the 1920s and 1930s. Another prominent ensemble was the Canadian Grenadier Guards Band under Capt J.-J. Gagnier, which numbered as many as 60 performers during the 1920s and 1930s. It was disbanded in 1970.

At the beginning of World War I the Dept of Militia and Defence made no provision for regimental bands, but many militia units formed their own on an unofficial basis. In 1914 the establishment of every Canadian Expeditionary Force battalion was increased optionally by one bandmaster and 24 bandsmen. Many militia units were fortunate in securing the services of civilian bands enlisted as groups, eg, the 157th Battalion Band of Orillia, Ont. This type of patriotism was not confined to the Dominion; in Newfoundland almost the entire Ayr Burg Band joined the Newfoundland Regiment under its bandmaster, L.L. Worthington. At the military site of Camp Borden, Ont, in August 1916, 28 bands were present among over 40,000 soldiers. At that time the first evening tattoo ceremony took place in Camp Borden.

Following World War I the Westminster (later Royal Westminster) Regiment Band came into being. Under Sgt Harry Moss it became important in the musical life of New Westminster, BC. The band appeared before George VI and Queen Elizabeth during their visit in 1939, has given summer concerts in the Queen’s Park bandshell, and has played at numerous openings of the British Columbia Legislature and at the Peace Arch ceremonies in Blaine, Wash. Other noted bands of the 1920-39 period included the 1st British Columbia Regiment Band in Vancouver (Lieut C.J. Cornfield), and the London (Ont) Fusiliers (later no. 4 Royal Canadian Regiment Band).

At the outbreak of World War II militia units were not authorized to enlist their bands for overseas service. However by 1940 it was decided to recruit musicians for training centres across Canada for the purpose of forming bands. Lieut A.L. Streeter was appointed music director for reinforcement units in England.

After the war a reorganization of reserve bands was begun, and by 1951 106 30-piece military bands had been authorized. In 1990 64 bands were authorized for the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve. Of these, 10 were in the Atlantic provinces, 11 in Quebec, 25 in Ontario, 12 in the Prairie region, and 6 in British Columbia. Of those bands using standard military instrumentation 8 were Navy, 29 Army (1 staffed by unpaid volunteers), and 2 Air Reserve. There were also 23 pipe bands. and 2 bugle bands. The bands were employed in musical support duties including unit parades, formal dinners, community concerts, and a variety of local, national and international events. In 1990 several outstanding reserve band events took place including a band spectacular hosted by the 15th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery (Reserve) at Vancouver’s Queen Elizabeth Auditorium in which 150 musicians including the regular force Naden Band participated in a concert which opened with an adaptation for band of Beethoven’s Ode to Joy and concluded with a massed performance of military band and pipes and drums. A similar extravaganza in Toronto’s Roy Thomson Hall celebrated the Royal Canadian Military Institute’s 100th anniversary. Over 2000 musicians from all nine of Toronto’s reserve bands took part.

In 1979 a summertime reserve band made up of advanced musicians recruited from across Canada was formed to perform at the daily Changing of the Guard ceremony on Ottawa’s Parliament Hill. Through the variety of its performance duties and a training program which has included participation in master classes the Band of the Ceremonial Guard has offered its members outstanding opportunities for professional development.

Some of the instruments used in the early bands are entered under modern substitutes: eg, E-flat saxophone horns under Alto saxophones, B-flat saxophone horns under Tenor saxophones, and Sarrusophones under Bass (tuba).

 

Regular Armed Forces Bands

Army Bands

The first regular armed forces bands were formed in Canada in 1899. Their main purpose has been to provide music for military or public functions. Prior to the unification of the Canadian forces in 1968, 17 regular military bands of the navy, army, and air force were authorized. After unification they were reorganized into nine larger bands with a total personnel of over 300.

The first full-time army band was that of the Royal Canadian Garrison Artillery formed in 1899 at Quebec Citadel with Joseph Vézina as bandmaster. It was led later by Charles O’Neill. The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Band was organized in 1905 in Kingston, Ont, with Maj Alfred Light as its leader. The first unit to receive authorization for a full-time band was the Royal Canadian Regiment. The band was formed in 1900 in Halifax by the British bandmaster Michael Ryan, was officially recognized in 1905, and took part in the coronation ceremonies for George V in 1911 and in the dedication of the Cross of Sacrifice at Washington, DC, in 1927. Lieut L.K. Harrison was appointed music director in 1924 and Lieut John Proderick in 1940. The Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band was established in 1919, when the regiment became a permanent force unit. The band was recruited by Capt Thomas William James in Toronto and later moved to Winnipeg. In 1922 the newly organized French-Canadian Regiment, the Royal 22nd (called the Van Doos because of its French name, Royal Vingt-deuxième) received authorization to establish a military band, and Capt Charles O’Neill became its conductor.

After the outbreak of World War II nine bands were authorized for fighting units overseas and in Canada. Lieut A.L. Streeter, formerly of the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band, was given the task of organizing military bands for the Canadian army. John Slatter was supervisor of army bands at Camp Borden, Ont. In 1942 there were 136 authorized active force bands in Canada and 69 overseas. The authorized band personnel numbered 5535. However, not all bands were operating or were up to strength. In 1944 10 full-time bands were maintained overseas, and 33 full-time bands and a nucleus of permanent bandsmen in spare-time bands were employed in Canada. In March 1947 all active or regular force bands were discontinued, and three bands were reconstituted – those of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery (stationed in Manitoba, first at Camp Shilo, then in Winnipeg), the Royal Canadian Regiment, and the Van Doos. In 1950 the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band was re-established. The Royal Canadian Regiment Band was reorganized in 1947 in London, Ont, under Warrant Officer William Armstrong. Capt Joseph Purcell was appointed music director in 1953 and Maj Derek Stannard in 1963. The latter instituted the very popular ‘Interlude for Music’ concert series in Ontario high schools. With the 1968 unification of the forces the band was augmented, and its 65 players represented Canada in Paris at the 50th anniversary of the signing of the 1918 Armistice. In 1969 Capt John Collins became music director, and a year later the band moved from London, Ont, to Camp Gagetown, NB. It has performed in schools and public concerts across New Brunswick.

When the Korean war, coupled with the demands of NATO, brought about a great expansion of the army, full-time military bands were increased in size, and several new bands were authorized for the active force. They included the following (with year of authorization and name of first music director; rank given is not necessarily that held at the time):

1951 The Canadian Guards Band, Camp Borden, Ont, later Petawawa, Ont/Capt James Gayfer:

1952 The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Band, Kingston, Ont/Capt B. Lyons

1952 The Royal Canadian Artillery Band (Coastal), Halifax, NS/Capt E.R. Wragg

1953 The Royal Canadian Engineers Band, Vedder Crossing, BC/Maj A. Brown

1955 Royal Canadian Dragoons Band, Camp Borden, Ont/Capt E. Spooner

1955 Royal Highland Regiment of Canada Band (Black Watch), Halifax, NS/Lieut D. Start

1956 Royal Canadian Ordnance Corps Band, Montreal/Lieut G. Gagnier

1956 Lord Strathcona Horse (Royal Canadians) Band, Calgary/Capt F.N. McLeod

After the 1968 unification four army bands kept their identities: the Royal Canadian Regiment, the Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Band in Calgary, the Royal 22nd Band in Quebec City, and the Royal Canadian Artillery Band dissolved in Halifax and reconstituted in Montreal with a nucleus of musicians from the Black Watch Band, which had been disbanded in 1968. Officially recognized in 1969, the last-named band appeared regularly under Maj Charles Villeneuve at Man and His World, Dominion Square, and the PDA and toured Europe and the Middle East. (See also Campbell Free Band Concerts.) The Royal Canadian Corps of Signals Band in Kingston, conducted by Capt Maurice Ziska, became known first as the Air Transport Command Band and later as the Vimy Band. It has performed as a ceremonial band and a symphonic concert band and has appeared in major concert halls of the world, including the Concertgebouw in Amsterdam.

Navy Bands

Prior to World War II bands in the Royal Canadian Navy were voluntary and part-time. In 1939 a permanent force navy band was recruited in Toronto under the direction of Lieut Alfred E. Zealley, who had been music director for the RCN during World War I. This band moved to HMCS Stadacona naval land base in Halifax, NS, and proved so successful that in 1940 a second naval band was approved for the base at Esquimalt, BC, under the direction of Lieut H.G. Cuthbert. By the end of the war 14 naval bands had been formed. In their place, late in 1945, naval bands were authorized for HMCS Stadacona at Halifax and HMCS Naden at Esquimalt, and Lieut Stanley Sunderland and Lieut-Cdr Cuthbert were appointed to recruit the two bands. The Naden band gave several performances during the British Columbia centennial celebrations in 1958 and has appeared at Grey Cup celebrations when these have been held in Vancouver.

Two additional bands were formed later, one at the naval air station HMCS Shearwater, at Shearwater, BC, and another at HMCS Cornwallis, at Cornwallis, NS, the new entry training base. The bandsmen were trained at the Royal Canadian Navy School of Music in HMCS Naden (see Canadian Forces School of Music), Esquimalt. Following unification in 1968 only two navy bands remained, the Canadian Forces Naden Band (then at Victoria, BC) and the Canadian Forces Stadacona Band at Halifax under Maj J.F. McGuire and later under Maj B.G. Bogisch and Capt George L. Morrison. The Stadacona band absorbed the Royal Canadian Artillery Band (Coastal) and members of the HMCS Cornwallis Band. The 40-member band has participated in the International Festival of Military Music in Maps, Belgium, in Canada Day celebrations in Brunssum, Holland, in 1972, and in the NATO festival in Stuttgart in 1974. In 1973 the band toured in Australia, New Zealand, and Samoa, and in 1976 it performed in the USSR. In Victoria the Naden Band performs the traditional Sunset Ceremony at the Legislative Buildings.

Air Force Bands

An Air Force Band was formed at Camp Borden under Frank Tucker in 1929. During World War II several Royal Canadian Air Force bands were created from volunteer ensembles and from the ranks of professional musicians. The largest was the Central Band of the RCAF, established in 1940 and maintained at Ottawa under Flying Officer E.A. Kirkwood. Other bands included the Tactical Air Command Band, under Flight Lieut Carl Friberg, which served in Gander, Nfld, Montreal, and Edmonton. The first contingent of air force musicians – the RCAF Overseas Headquarters Band – arrived in England in 1942 under the direction of Sqn Ldr Martin Boundy. It was followed shortly afterwards by the No. 6 Bomber Group Band under Warrant Officer Clifford Hunt and the Bournemouth band directed by Flight Sergt Vowden. An extremely popular dance orchestra, the RCAF Streamliners, drawn from the headquarters band, appeared throughout England.

The cessation of hostilities in 1945 brought about a reduction in personnel in air force bands, but the Central Band of the RCAF continued to flourish. The RCAF Tactical Air Command Band was known briefly as the Northwest Air Command Band and was stationed at Winnipeg in 1946. In 1947 it moved to Air Force Headquarters in Edmonton and reverted to the old name. In 1946 the Training Command Band was organized by Flight Lieut Clifford Hunt in Toronto. It was renamed the Air Transport Command Band in 1949 while a new Training Command Band was organized in Winnipeg. By 1964 only the Central Band of the RCAF in Ottawa and the Training Command Band in Winnipeg remained in service. After the unification of the armed services in 1968 the Training Command Band was joined by members of the Royal Canadian Horse Artillery band in Winnipeg, and in 1975 it was renamed the Air Command Band (director, Capt Terence Barnes).

The Central Band of the RCAF in Ottawa was renamed the National Band of the Canadian Armed Forces in 1968 and the Central Band of the Canadian Forces in 1970. The band has toured Europe frequently and has made appearances at the Bern International Music Festival and at several NATO music festivals. It has toured in Canada and has appeared regularly in Ottawa at welcoming ceremonies for visiting heads of state and other dignitaries including the Pope and US presidents Reagan and Bush. During Reagan’s 1981 visit the band premiered Louis Applebaum’s Presidential Fanfares. Nine members of the band constitute the Canadian Forces String Ensemble (in 1991, 6 violins, cello, bass, and piano) which has regularly performed at functions of the Governor General and has been available as required to the Secretary of State and agencies of the Canadian government. On special occasions the ensemble has been augmented by flute and clarinet.

The Central Band played on Parliament Hill each summer for the daily changing of the guard ceremonies until 1979 when those duties were assumed by the Band of the Ceremonial Guard, a summertime reserve unit.

Ceremonies

Canadian regular force bands have travelled extensively throughout the world and have maintained active performing schedules in their home regions, appearing in concerts, parades, and tattoos, often before Canadian service personnel stationed abroad. In 1962 six bands performed at the World’s Fair in Seattle, Wash, for a massed band tattoo. During Canada’s centennial year (1967) several bands played an active role in the 147 performances of the Canadian Armed Forces Tattoo in 40 cities across Canada. The following are typical of activities after 1979. The Stadacona Band’s four-piece combo toured Norway, Sweden, and Denmark in 1981. The full band which has been the regular pit band for the annual Nova Scotia Tattoo visited Marseilles, France in 1983, in 1990 celebrated the 50th anniversary of music in the Canadian Navy and toured Europe giving special concerts at the International Music Parade in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Royal Canadian Regiment Band was the ceremonial band for the Silver Broom curling championships in Fredericton, NB in 1980, was duty band in New Brunswick for the royal visit of 1984, and in Holland took part in celebrations to mark the 40th anniversary of the liberation. The Royal 22nd Regiment band began daily summertime Changing of the Guard Ceremonies at the Quebec Citadel in 1981, performed on the Plains of Abraham on behalf of the Commission of the Battlefields in 1988 and in 1989 gave several performances in honour of their regiment’s 75th anniversary. The Royal Canadian Artillery band in 1988 fulfilled 245 engagements, performing before some 107,000 spectators in Canada and Europe, then in 1989 provided the nucleus for a cross-Canada tour of Canadian Forces musicians. The Vimy band in 1983 in London, Ont premiered Pioneers by Kingston composer Norman Sherman, and in 1987 travelled to Europe, appearing at the Mons Music Festival, the NATO Music Festival in Kaiserslautern, Germany, and at a military festival in Saumer, France. The Air Command Band performed at the International Music Camp at International Falls, Minn in 1982, appeared at the Albertville Military Tattoo in France in 1983, and appeared across Canada in celebration of the RCAF’s 60th anniversary in 1984. The Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry band toured Australia in 1988 to help celebrate that country’s 200th anniversary, taking part in a military tattoo and playing concerts in Hobart and Launceston, Tasmania and in Melbourne, appearing before some six million spectators in all. The Naden Band, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1990, released a recording titled The Golden Tribute and visited Vladivostok in the USSR

Authorized Marches

The following list, in order of precedence, indicates the official marches of the Canadian forces, both regular and reserve:


The Canadian Navy

Heart of Oak

The Canadian Army

Artillery

The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery Royal Artillery Slow March, The British Grenadiers, Bonnie Dundee, Keel Row

Armoured Branch

The Royal Canadian Dragoons Monsieur Beaucaire, Light of Foot

Lord Strathcona’s Horse Soldiers of the Queen

12⊇ Régiment blindé du Canada Marianne s’en va-t-au moulin

The Governor General’s Horse Guards Men of Harlech

The Elgin Regiment I’m Ninety-Five

The Ontario Regiment John Peel

The Queen’s York Rangers (1st American Regiment) Braganza

Sherbrooke Hussars Regimental March of the Sherbrooke Hussars

1st Hussars Bonnie Dundee (for military band)

The Prince Edward Island Regiment Old Solomon Levi

The Royal Canadian Hussarss (Montreal) Men of Harlech

The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught’s Own) I’m Ninety-Five

The South Alberta Light Horse A Southerly Wind and a Cloudy Sky

The Saskatchewan Dragoons Punjab

The King’s Own Calvary Regiment (Calgary) Colonel Bogey

 

The British Columbia Dragoons Fare Thee Well Iniskilling

The Fort Gary Horse El Abanico

Le Régiment de Hull La Marche de la Victoire

The Windsor Regiment My Boy Willie

Artillery Branch

The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Royal Artillery Slow March, The British Grenadiers, Bonnie Dundee, Keel Row,

49th (Sault St Marie) Field Artillery Regiment A Hundred Pipers

 

Military Engineering Branch

Wings, The British Grenadiers

 

Communications and Electronics Branch

1st Canadian Signals Regiment Corp March of the Royal Canadian Signals ‘Begone Dull Care’

Communications and Electronics Branch March Mercury

 

Infantry Branch

The Royal Canadian Regiment The Royal Canadian Regiment (Tune: St Catharines)

Princess Patricia’s Canadian Light Infantry Medley: Has Anyone Seen the Colonel?, It’s a Long Way to Tipperary, and Mademoiselle from Armentières

Royal 22e Régiment (The Van Doos) Vive la Canadienne

Canadian Airborne Regiment Milanolo

The Canadian Grenadier Guards The British Grenadiers

The Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada The Buffs

The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Highland Laddie

Les Voltigeurs de Québec Les Voltigeurs de Québec

The Royal Regiment of Canada British Grenadiers followed by Here’s to the Maiden

The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) The Mountain Rose

The Princess of Wales’ Own Regiment The Buffs

The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment I’m Ninety-Five

The Lincoln and Welland Regiment The Lincolnshire Poacher

The Highland Fusiliers of Canada The Highland Laddie and Seann Triubhas (Whistle o’er the lave o’t)

The Grey and Simcoe Foresters The 31st Greys

The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment) The Campbells are Coming

The Brockville Rifles Bonnie Dundee

The Lanark and Renfrew Scottish Regiment The Highland Laddie

Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders Bonnie Dundee

Les Fusiliers du St-Laurent Rêves Canadiens

Le Régiment de la Chaudière Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse

Les Fusiliers Mont Royal The Jockey of York

The Princess Louise Fusiliers The British Grenadiers

The Royal New Brunswick Regiment A Hundred Pipers

The West Nova Scotia Regiment God Bless the Prince of Wales

The Nova Scotia Highlanders The Sweet Maid of Glenaruel

Le Régiment de Maisonneuve Le Régiment de Sambre et Meuse

The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa The Piobaireachd of Donald Dhu

The Royal Winnipeg Rifles Old Solomon Levi

The Essex and Kent Scottish The Highland Laddie

48th Highlanders of Canada The Highland Laddie

Le Régiment du Saguenay Le Régiment du Saguenay

The Algonquin Regiment We Lead, Others Follow

The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada The Campbells are Coming

The Lake Superior Scottish Regiment The Highland Laddie

The North Saskatchewan Regiment The Jockey of York

The Royal Regina Rifles Lutzow’s Wild Hunt

The Rocky Mountain Rangers Meeting of the Waters

The Queen’s Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada The Piobaireachd of Donald Dhu

The Royal Westminster Regiment The Maple Leaf Forever

The Calgary Highlanders The Highland Laddie

Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke Queen City

The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada The Piobaireachd of Donald Dhu

The Canadian Scottish Regiment Blue Bonnets Over the Border

The Royal Montreal Regiment Ça Ira

2nd Battalion, The Irish Regiment Garry Owen

The Toronto Scottish Blue Bonnets Over the Border

The Royal Newfoundland Regiment The Banks of Newfoundland

 

The Canadian Air Force

RCAF Marchpast

Logistics Branch

March of the Logistics Branch

Medical Branch

The Farmer’s Boy

Dental Branch


Marchpast of the Royal Canadian Dental Corps

Land Electrical and Mechanical Engineering Branch

REME Corps March Past

Chaplain Branch

Onward, Christian Soldiers

Security Branch

Thunderbird

Legal Branch

When I Good Friends Was Called to the Bar

Administration Branch

 

Old Comrades

Personnel Selection Branch

Semper Intelligere

Physical Education Branch

Allsports March

Intelligence Branch

E Tenebris Lux

The Royal Canadian Military Institute

 


 

Chilean Military Bands

Over the years, the Symphonic Band of the air force of Chile has projected the image of the institution through its multiple presentations, delivering, not only culture, but that joy and excitement to the community.

With numerous recitals at far and wide throughout the national territory, it is one of the letters that the institution has to integrate into the community. Cities, towns, municipalities and schools are part of the public that following each presentation ovaciona these musicians.

Perhaps the most remarkable and at the same time recognized it is the opening night of the musical weeks of Frutillar, and this is the only day where the event entries are exhausted. Such recognition is a sample of the beloved and admired this grouping in the country.

This band was born in the artillery air group, June 16, 1934. Sixteen members of this unit participated in the project while that at the same time, musicians of the Symphony Orchestra of Chile amenizaban events in the aviation school officers Casino. The number members was increasing with the passage of time and its success also, with the contribution of youth and the talents of musicians.

It was from 1979 that he moved towards a more professional route, thanks to the recruitment of the director of bands in the German police, Lieutenant Colonel Artur Max Rosin. The purpose was to turn the group into a body of cultural dissemination of the air force of Chile. For the first time they appeared on recordings and in the musical weeks of Frutillar together with the Symphony Orchestra of the University of Chile.

Over the years the band has been recognized by the excellence of its musicians, who rehearse intensively to improve performances each day. Without a doubt, one of the factors that make be acclaimed in every concert is its versatility and quality, able to pass through codes of classical music, popular songs and bands of films, with the ease that only pros know. Currently, the band is led by the well known band master, Negri Fabrizzio.

Regular Army Bands :Ejército de Chile – Actividades Artísticas y Culturales

Air Force Bands: Banda Sinfónica de la Fuerza Aérea de Chile

 

Composers Original works for Band

Prominent composers for concert band

Early/Middle twentieth century

Some of the most important names in establishing literature written specifically for concert band in the early and middle 20th century were:

 

 

Howard Cable

Percy Grainger

Paul Hindemith

Gustav Holst

Gordon Jacob

Arnold Schoenberg – solely for his Theme and Variations, op. 43a (1943)

John Philip Sousa

Igor Stravinsky

Ralph Vaughan Williams

Late twentieth century through the present

Over the last forty years, many composers have written major new works for wind ensemble. Some of these composers have risen to the forefront as being particularly important in the concert band’s development. Among these:


 Samuel Adler

Leslie Bassett

Warren Benson

John Barnes Chance

Michael Colgrass

John Corigliano

David Gillingham

Morton Gould

David Holsinger

Karel Husa

Anne McGinty

Johan de Meij

Jonathan Newman

Vincent Persichetti


Alfred Reed

H. Owen Reed

Gunther Schuller

Joseph Schwantner

Claude T. Smith

Robert W. Smith

Philip Sparke


Frank Ticheli

 

David Del Tredici

 

Fisher Tull,    James Swearingen may also be considered as an important contributor to modern concert band music

 

Corps of Army Music  

 

The Corps of Army Music is a corps of the British Army. It was formed in 1994 as an umbrella organisation to oversee the 29 new permanent army bands formed following Options for Change. In 2006, the regular army bands were re-organised again, with a reduction in total numbers:

 

The four bands of the Royal Armoured Corps amalgamated into two.

 

The Band of the Royal Irish Regiment disbanded from regular service.

 

The Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland formed by amalgamation of the Highland Band and Lowland Band.

 

The new Minden Band of the Queen’s Division formed by amalgamation of the Minden Band and the Normandy Band.

 

The new Band of the King’s Division formed by amalgamation of the Waterloo Band and the Normandy Band.

 

The new Band of the Prince of Wales’ Division formed by amalgamation of the Clive Band and the Lucknow Band.

 

It employs 1,100 musicians. The minimum term of service is four years, and the corps promotes itself to potential employees as a good opportunity to obtain a salaried post as a musician, something which is generally hard to find, possibly before embarking on a civilian career in music. A wide range of music is performed, not just marching band music.

 

Regular Army bands

 

Cavalry Infantry Support Arms Services

 

Band of the Life Guards Band of the Grenadier Guards Royal Artillery Band Band of the Royal Logistic Corps

 

Band of the Blues and Royals Band of the Coldstream Guards Band of the Corps of Royal Engineers Band of the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers

 

Heavy Cavalry and Cambrai Band Band of the Scots Guards Band of the Royal Corps of Signals Band of the Adjutant General’s Corps

 

Light Cavalry Band Band of the Irish Guards Band of the Army Air Corps 

 

 Band of the Welsh Guards  

 

 Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland 

 

 Minden Band of the Queen’s Division 

 

 Band of the King’s Division 

 

 Band of the Prince of Wales’ Division 

 

 Band and Bugles of The Rifles 

 

 Band of the Parachute Regiment 

 

 Gurkha Band 

 

(2)Corps of Drums/Pipes and Drums

 

In addition to the regular bands, most infantry battalions maintain their own musicians, either in the form of the Corps of Drums (for English and Welsh regiments) or the Pipes and Drums (for Scottish, Irish and Gurkha regiments). The Corps of Drums of an infantry battalion will usually feature drummers, buglers and flautists, while the Pipes and Drums will be formed of bagpipers and drummers. These bands are descended from the drummers and pipers who led infantry regiments in columns, and who used their drums or bugles to sound orders on the battlefield. Unlike the regular bands, these are first and foremost fully trained fighting soldiers who form one of the battalion’s specialist units, such as the mortar, anti-tank or machine-gun platoon.

 

(3)Territorial Army Bands

 

Prior to Options for Change and the formation of the Corps of Army Music, most regiments, especially infantry regiments, maintained their own bands. This tradition has since passed to the Territorial Army, who maintain and operate regimental bands in the names of infantry regiments:

 

 

 

Lowland Band of the Royal Regiment of Scotland

 

Band of the Princess of Wales’s Royal Regiment (Queen’s and Royal Hampshires)

 

Band of the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers

 

Band of the Royal Anglian Regiment

 

Band of the Royal Gibraltar Regiment

 

Band of the The Royal Irish Regiment (27th (Inniskilling) 83rd and 87th and Ulster Defence Regiment)

 

Band of the Royal Welsh – the only all-brass band remaining within the British military

 

Band of the Duke of Lancaster’s Regiment (King’s Lancashire and Border)

 

Band of the Yorkshire Regiment (14th/15th, 19th & 33rd/76th Foot)

 

Band of 51st (Scottish) Brigade

 

The Staffords Band

 

The Salamanca Band of The Rifles

 

The Waterloo Band of The Rifles

 

Band of the Honourable Artillery Company

 

150 (Northumbrian) Transport Regiment, Royal Logistic Corps Band

 

Regimental Band (Inns of Court and City Yeomanry) of the Royal Yeomanry

 

Lancashire Artillery Volunteers Band

 

Territorial Band of the Royal Engineers

 

 At the time of writing, April 2011, the TA Bands have retained their independence from the Corps of Army Music. There are also several TA Bands that are privately sponsored within the army.

 

Croatian  Military bands

 

Symphonic Wind Orchestra of the CAF, the Croatian representative orchestra, founded in 1991. as a continuation of the tradition of musical composition in the Croatian military forces. Professional construction of the Croatian Armed Forces made a precondition for the establishment of such a body of music. Over the years the orchestra has had the following names: Representative Orchestra National Guard, Army Symphonic Wind Orchestra, the Orchestra and the Army at the end of the Symphonic Wind Orchestra of the CAF. The process of creation is gradually unfolded, and began forming the Representative Orchestra of the National Guard 1991st year.

 

Beginnings

 

Representative Orchestra of the National Guard was established at the General Headquarters.  It  was the conscripts made up of professional musicians-reservists who felt that their musical abilities would contribute to creating the future of the Croatian Army Orchestra, and thus, in the midst of war, to contribute to the creation of the Croatian state. The band was led by esteemed conductor and musician, Joseph Jankovic. The  first public performance, the orchestra gave was on parade with the National Guard on  28th May 1991at the stadium on Kranjčevićeva Street in Zagreb.

 

The Army Military Band was formed at the end of 1991 within the Ministry of Defence in order to be composed of employees – officers, NCOs and soldiers of the Croatian army. Among the peoplewhom were important in  creating the  military band were  Kaučić Francis, Stephen and Joseph Katalenić Cmuk. The first rehearsals were held in August at  Cesarec Hall in Zagreb, and later on the fourth floor of the HV Zvonimir in Zvonimirova 12.

 

The  Orchestra made their first public performance in Croatia, and  ceremonial occasion was the  performance held On 14 January 1992 at the presidential palace, on the occasion of the visit of President of Italy Franccesca Cosige Republic of Croatia with the Croatian recognition by Italy.

 

First public auditions

 

During 1992. The  Orchestra performed  on the battlefields around the country. Its purpose is to maintain a high degree of combat morale of Croatian soldiers. The  Orchestra was led Captain Joseph Cmuk who  prepared the  musicians for the first concert the first Christmas concert 1991.

 

1 December 1992 the band  held their first public auditions. Turnout was high, and the orchestra received fifteen new, highly educated musicians – students and graduates of musicians from Music Academy in Zagreb. All of the new members had a  desire to help develop the  military orchestra and create a worthy  representative body of the Croatian army.Their desire was to Introduce a new, more demanding repertoire and showcase   works by Croatian authors such as suite from the era of the Joker by  James Gotovca and in battle, to battle! Ivana pl. Zajc.

 

 The  Minister of Defence on  May 1st  1995. Revised the military band establishment by amalgamating the  Representative Orchestra National Guard and Military Band of the Army and renaming the organization the  Army Symphonic Wind Orchestra, based in Zagreb. This ensemble  would be able to  meet all military and protocol needs. The orchestra Commander  appointed was  – Tedi Lušetić , deputy Domagoj Franić, chief conductor and leader Mladen Tarbuk Marko Poklepović,

 

 The Orchestra became one of the leading musical authorities in Croatia. In addition to protocol tasks, the symphonic season at the Concert Hall Lisinski, the Orchestra is developing an extensive concert activities across the Croatian. The backbone of the repertoire consists of original compositions for the military band , the Croatian premiere of the world’s musical heritage, the works of contemporary composers and the premiere of Croatian authors. Within the orchestra, there are  a number of chamber groups with different performances of chamber music season in the Croatian Music Institute, including  the brass band, big band. Besides the chief conductor of the Orchestra   world-renowned conductors  have appeared including Dragan Sremec, Tomislav Uhlik, Miljenko Prohaska, Vladimir Kranjčević, Pavle Dešpalj, Niksa Bareza, Vjekoslav Sutej, Uroš Lajovic, K. Šipuš, Walter Hilgers as well as many soloists: Radovan Cavallin clarinetist, oboist Branko Mihanovic, horn Radovan Vlatkovic, violinist Anđelko Krpan, Dragan Sremec saxophonist, pianist Nina Patarčec, trumpeter Stanko Arnold, Todd tubist Rošker, trombonist Branimir Slokar. Many Croatian composers have written new works for orchestra, among them Anđelko Klobučar, Anđelko Igrec, Marko Ruždjak, Mladen Tarbuk, Tomislav Uhlik, Igor Kuljerić, Zoran Juranić, K. Seletković, Branimir Lazarin, Sanda Majurec crafts, Olja Jelaska, Antun Tomislav Saban, Davor Bobic, Josip Magdic, Vjekoslav Nježić, Frano Djurovic, Zoran Juranić, Berislav Šipuš, Davorin Kempf, Ruben Radica, Stanko Horvat et al.

 

In addition to concerts in the musical season, the most important orchestra performances achieved on the Croatian Summer festivals (Rovinj, Zadar, Zagreb, Zadar, Hvar), Varazdin Baroque Evenings, the Eucharistic celebration on the occasion of the arrival of Pope John Paul II. in Zagreb 1995. and 1998., the International Music Festival in Opatija and Pula, the opening of the Dubrovnik Summer Festival 1997th and 1998. as well as Music Biennale Zagreb, on tour in Budapest, 1997th, the international festival Moscow autumn 1997., in Karlsruhe 1998th and Brussels 1999th year.

 

Mature stage

 

In addition to concert activities, the Orchestra has successfully performed at numerous international festival of military orchestras Tattoo’s (Cologne, Berlin, Stuttgart, Salzburg, Albertville, Neuchatel, Karlsruhe, Debrecen, Saumur, Rotterdam, Krakow …), where he choreographed performances regularly motivatethe enthusiasm of the audience.

 

In addition to numerous recordings for Croatian Television, the orchestra recorded for the American label Honey Rock. In December 1996. published the first album called Christmas Dream, in October 1997. CD Croatian Mass. (A. Klobučar: Pontifical Mass and F. pl. Lučić: Misa Jubilaris), 2004. CD coming Croatian marches in 2005. released CD”homeland”with love, taken together with Klapo HRM”SV. Juraj”.

 

Orchestra has received a number of Croatian Music Award: Milka Trnina for the ultimate musical achievements in 1997. and award Lisinski Croatian Composers’ Society to perform works by Croatian composers  in 1998

 

In 2000    Mladen Tarbuk  is appointed thechief  conductor  .and the orchestra entered a new phase in its development, while maintaining a successful musical of the season and a great protocol activities.

 

Symphonic Wind Orchestra Armed Forces today

 

In 2003. commander Miroslav Orchestra takes Vukovojac-Dugan, and as chief of the conductor 2003rd comes Tomislav Fačini. Orchestra Leader becomes Mario Komazin.

 

 The Orchestra continues an  intense activity on protocol and other tasks in the Armed Forces, a gradually stronger and concert activities. With the concert season in Zagreb, and continue to perform at concerts and festivals around the Croatian:

 

The Navy Orchestra

 

The Navy Band is an important factor in the musical life of the city of Split and Dalmatia. Founded in the days of the war they have developed into a  prominent promoter of the cultural life of the community in which it originated.

 

The Navy Orchestra fosters a very distinctive style, is therefore not surprising that in their designs can meet a wide range of compositions from different musical forms and styles. In doing so, the Navy  band always highlights o the Croatian musical heritage, especially the Dalmatian melodies with which are  tied Nerskidivo.  The military Orchestra is distinguished by an enviable stability of intonation, especially  it`s rhythmic motility. This is the reason that in their concerts and numerous public appearances they have  managed to achieve a fruitful collaboration with the most prominent vocal and instrumental soloists, and the listener constantly gain the confidence and cordial response. Hundreds of actual concerts and other performances not least, testify to the reputation of the ensemble and provide a solid warranty and no doubt confidence in the future of this elite body of music. Since 2008 the orchestra is part of the Navy Armed Forces Orchestra.

 

 

 

Czech Military bands

 

Central music of the CZECH REPUBLIC was founded. December 1950 as the representative body in the field of military brass music. The new Orchestra became a separate unit within the infantry battalion “of the Prague uprising” and had 120 musicians.  At that time there consisted three groups of a smaller number of musicians in the Czech Air Force. It was possible  if necessary,  to connect and create jointly a larger Orchestra. Thus the Founding of the Central band of the Czech military coincided with the emergence of the CZECH REPUBLIC.  The development of Czech (military) brass music represented a unique era in the history of Czech military bands, the first real opportunity to meet the highest artistic ideals. Indeed, the Orchestra, which was instituted, has become a quality military ensemble. The conditions were created for the systematic and deliberate work in the very beginning it became    a unique implementation of the ancient and long-time dream of many generations of military leaders and musicians.

 

The dream was to create a professional concert wind Orchestra, which was capable of a high artistic level to be presented to the broadest domestic and the foreign public the very best of Czech and world band music literature. After all, the quality of the Czech military musicians was legendary from the beginning of the 18th. Century. In addition to the application of Czech musicians in military music throughout the monarchy we find significant traces of Czech military musicians in Mexico as well as in the American civil war, Great Britain, Russia, Turkey and Egypt. A popular venue of Czech military musicians was Serbia and Montenegro. In the Austro-Hungarian army several thousand served continuously as musicians. To name a few of them, the distinguished  Rudolf Newcomer, and above all the renowned   Julius Fučík, these and many other unique musicians have added to the legacy of Czech military musicians.

 

During the 60 years since its inception, the Orchestra and its members to overcome the many reorganisation or fundamental changes. However, the emphasis was always on the concert activity and artistic evolution, which became a crucial element for the unique status that the Orchestra gradually created. Their prestige as one of the world’s best brass orchestras, the CZECH REPUBLIC very much vindicated in comparison with foreign military orchestras in the domestic and foreign festivals and shows. Among the most prestigious belonged, in particular, participation in festivals in Norfolk (USA, 2009), Quebec (Canada), in Oslo (Norway, 1999) and Stockholm (2006). In addition, their music is often performed in Germany, Great Britain, Austria, Poland, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Hungary.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No Comments »

World Book of Military Music A-B

 WORLD BOOK OF MILITARY MUSIC -                                     Military Band Photographs

A-B

25th Infantry Division band

The Band of the U. S. Army’s 25th Infantry Division (Light) whose nick-name is `Tropic Lightning’ has a long and prestigious history. It is also the most decorated line band in the U.S. Army. The Band is part of the Headquarters & Headquarters Company of the 25th Division. This company was formed in 1953 (the Band pre-dates it) and claims participation in eleven campaigns in World War II and Korea and also Vietnam. These claims are all based and credited to the 25th Division Band. The 25th Infantry Division Band was formed just twelve days after the formation of the Division itself 

The Aldershot Command Searchlight Tattoos

The origins of the Tattoo
The 1920’s and 1930’s Tattoo originated from a special display arranged for Queen Victoria. In 1894, the then GOC of Aldershot, HRH the Duke of Connaught, arranged a Torchlight Tattoo for the Queen’s entertainment during one of her visits to the Royal Pavilion. The Tattoo, held in the evenings, included a selection of military performances that were illuminated by flame torches. The torchlight tattoos later became a feature of the Military Fete which were held at Government House in Farnborough. These fetes included military displays, fairground rides and the last feature of the fete was a musical display, with the bandsman accompanied by torch bearers. On the last note of the ‘last post’ the flames were extinguished, plunging the whole area into darkness.

After the Great War
After the Great War, the Searchlight Tattoos became an event in themselves, and took place on a number of evenings during a week in June. The Tattoos consisted of massed bands, drills, fireworks, lantern displays and modern warfare displays all illuminated by searchlights. In 1925 the first historical display took place, with a recreation of the burning of Moscow in 1812, accompanied by the ‘1812’ overture, and a re-creation of the Battle of Waterloo.

The tattoos were nationally renowned, with crowds of up to 500,000 people attending annually from all over the country. Special transport was chartered, His Master’s Voice (HMV) produced recordings of the event and the performances were broadcast on the wireless to Britain and other European countries.

Behind the Scenes
With around 5,000 soldiers taking part and over 1,000 soldiers involved in administration, organising the Tattoos was no easy task. Soon after each Tattoo finished an executive committee of HQ Aldershot Command and the Officer in charge of the Tattoos met to discuss the following years programme. Each display and pageant was allotted to a division, brigade or unit to prepare, with historical direction in the hands of a military historian on the Reserve of Officers.

Historical accuracy during the re-enactments was so important that, in 1925 when they were re-enacting the Battle of Waterloo, two French Officers were bought over to ensure that the French uniforms and weapons were re-created properly.

Attention to detail did not stop with historical accuracy, each set or prop was built to look realistic. Chariots and carriages were made up on GS wagons in the Field Stores workshops; and they also made spears, ballista’s, dummy guns an a host or other props. Sometimes items were even purchased from film companies. Bayonets were made with rubber ends, in order to prevent injuries during charges, which they wanted to look as real as possible. Elaborate sets were built including mock Tudor castles, forts and French villages.

The Searchlights were the responsibility of the Corps of the Royal Engineers. In the 1939 Tattoo 33 searchlights were used, producing 3 billion candle power. The searchlights were not cheap items, at the time they cost around £5,000 each.

The local firm Harwoods were also heavily involved in the set building. The pictures show some of the firms work.

In 1930, it was revealed in the press how they got the thousands of troops and thousand bandsmen to march in time. There were actually lights which flashed in time with the music to keep the soldiers in step.

There were also traffic lights behind the scenes which told the soldiers when they were to go on ‘stage’. Red lights told them to stop, green to go, and amber to pause. In the 1930’s during rehearsals photographs were taken in rapid succession (at 1 second intervals) to allow the commander in charge to see if any soldiers were out of time, and to reprimand the culprits!

Scout support
Local boy scout organisations were used to show ticket holders to their seats. In the back of the programmes there was information that stated that the boy scouts did their work voluntarily and were not allowed to be tipped. Local television personality Arthur English was one such boy scout, although he did keep his gratuities. Arthur would hide the tip money in his shoe, then later buy a bun with the money when the show started. Local man, Arthur Lunn, was a scout during the Tattoos and recalls that after the final nights performance the scouts would have a big camp and jamboree at camp 49 at Ewshot. He remembers that “boys visited from all over the country, one troop from as far away as Gibraltar, it ended up with a big sing-song round a blazing campfire”.

Getting to the Tattoo
As the years progressed the numbers of motor cars brought to the Tattoo increased, ranging from 1,233 vehicles in 1921 to 58,113 vehicles in 1938. Special parking arrangements were made by the RAC. Routes were colour coded on maps and leaflets about the event, advising people how to enter Aldershot. These coloured routes then corresponded to the coloured car parks to make it easier for orientation of the visitor. Car drivers were asked to place a sign saying Tattoo in their windscreen (which were sent out with advanced ticket sales). These window stickers were to help police direct other traffic away from the main routes to ease congestion. When the Tattoo’s were sold out, signs were put up in a 20 mile radius of Rushmoor arena on the main routes into Aldershot. Traffic was also directed by Searchlights and by announcements via loud speakers.

After a Saturday performance of the 1930 Tattoo, traffic jams were so bad there was a queue from the arena to Staines and Guildford until 6am the next morning. The Royal family who had attended had to have a special motorcycle escort to bypass the traffic in on their way back to Windsor Castle.

Specially chartered coaches and charabancs bought visitors to Rushmoor Arena. And additional train services to Aldershot were laid on. As many as 200 extra train routes were created, allowing visitors to come from all over the country, including: Sunderland, Liverpool, and Bristol. Upon arrival at Aldershot train station, Aldershot and District Traction Company (the local bus company) would shuttle the spectators to Rushmoor. Many people who were catching trains took a leisurely walk back to Aldershot station, stopping to get food on the way, as the trains to some destinations did not leave until the early hours of the morning.

During Tattoo week, it was a pastime of local people to watch the traffic. Local people would go to Aldershot, and surrounding stations (Ash, Fleet and Farnborough), just to see the vast amounts of people arriving. Some people also sat by the side of the main roads to watch the cars pass, as it was a rare sight to see thousands of cars at that time. Some people believed that watching the traffic was as much a show as watching the Tattoo.

Society
From Princes to Maharajahs; poets to prime ministers, the Aldershot Tattoos were the place for society to entertain. The Tattoos were held in the evenings during Ascot week. Members of society would watch the races during the day and drive down to the Tattoos in the evening. Wealthy members of society hired out the royal boxes or bought reserved seats in the grandstands for their guests. Visitors such as Lord and Lady Sir Phillip Chetwode and Prince George (later to become King George V) were regular attendees at the Tattoos.

Daylight Rehearsals
The full dress rehearsal of the Tattoos took place during the day. In order to provide an audience, the daylight rehearsal was free to school children nationwide. Headmasters/headmistresses had to apply for passes in writing and specially chartered buses and trains bought pupils from as far a field as Tamworth and South end on Sea.  After the Tattoos finished, the goods yards at Aldershot railway station were used as a holding area for the children, in order to get them organised to insure they got on the right train. Each train was given a number, and the children had their train number on cards tied round their necks. They then had to line up in their groups of numbers, and they were led onto the platform when their trains arrived.

It was not only school children who went to see the daylight rehearsals, the royal princesses Elizabeth and Margaret also attended. When the princesses attended in 1935 they were treated to an impromptu fireworks display. A truck laden with fireworks and explosives caught fire, and wowed the children arriving for the rehearsal who all thought it was part of the show.

The Tattoo and it’s charitable links
The Aldershot Tattoos and Army Shows have never been organised for profit, with any money made going to military charities. When Sir Horrace Smith Dorrien was Commander-in-Chief at Aldershot (1907 –1912) he wanted to improve matters related to Army welfare. He suggested that the money raised from the Tattoo should go to help the Army’s ill and sick soldiers and their dependents. The Tattoo during Smith Dorrien’s time was part of the Military Fete, and at that time it raised around £500 for military charities. In contrast, by the end of the 1930’s the Tattoos were raising around £40, 000 for military charities.

The funds originally went to charities such as the Soldiers and Sailors Families Association. There was also an emphasis on keeping the money for local charities, and many of the local charitable institutions such as Louise Margaret hospital for military families, Queen Mary’s nursery, benefited from the Tattoos.

In order to show the success of the Tattoos in raising money for charities, in 1936 the figures were given out of how much the Aldershot Tattoo raised for charity in comparison to other military events.

Event  Net Profit Money given to charity
Royal Tournament £13, 409 £13, 000
Aldershot Tattoo £41, 030 £40, 633
Tidworth Tattoo £13, 511 £9, 439

 

American Civil War Bands and Musical Instruments

When the American Civil War began in 1861 there were few full time military bands in existence.  There was the United States Marine Band, some army regimental bands and the United States Military Academy band at West Point.  There were however numerous state and militia bands.  These bands whom we will refer to as reserve units were of a very high quality.   The reserve military bands had numerous patrons who donated funds to enable the bands to hire musicians and leaders.  In many of the larger centers there were a number of highly trained and experienced reservists who manned these bands.   The leaders in many instances were very high profile military bandmasters.  The great Patrick S Gilmore was the leader of the 24th Massachusetts Infantry band.   The American Brass band of Providence Rhode Island attached to the First Rhode Island Infantry was led by Joseph Green.   The composer of the world famous Washington Greys march Claudio S Grafulla was the director of the 7th New York Infantry.

After the beginning of the Civil War, Congress authorized the creation of regimental bands for the Regular Army.   The law which was published under Order No. 48 on July 31st 1861, specified that each infantry regiment was entitled to two musicians per company, and covered the artillery and the cavalry as well.    Bands were limited however to twenty-four members in the infantry and artillery with a lesser number of 16 in the cavalry.   The terminology of “musician” seemed to have a different connotation for some; the musician was the field musician such as fifes, bugles and drums. They offered signals and ceremonial music. The bands primarily provided entertainment for the troops and civilian gatherings.   The proliferation of volunteer regiments caused Congress to reassess the situation in regard to the bands because the musicians were under salary and it was noted that the cost of operation for the bands was between $9,100.00 and $13,000.00 which included salaries, equipment, transportation, and subsistence.   Finally a public law was passed on July 1862 which abolished regimental bands in volunteer units.   Regular army bands were not effected per-se by this ruling but each unit was restricted to 16 bandsmen.   To many modern day band buffs this is a familiar story and we have no doubt that there was an effect on the morale of the players.  There is an up-side to reducing personnel because it helps to eliminate chair warmers.

The appreciation for  good band music was expressed by several young soldiers who in their letters home mentioned the concerts performed by the regimental bands.  In one instance a soldier of the 24th Massachusetts Infantry in writing to his home in Boston described the band concert with leader Patrick S Gilmore providing a “splendid array of marches, gallops, two-steps and even  selections from opera.”

The Civil war took a great toll on both sides and even the bands suffered casualties.  Many bands led their regiments into battle and on May 5th 1862 at Fair Oaks during the battle at Williamsburg (Peninsular Campaign).  A bandsman was severely wounded.  The following is a description of the battle culled from a book by Stephan Sears ‘To The Gates of Richmond‘:

[Federal] Corps commander [Samuel] Heintzelman joined the desperate struggle to close the broken ranks. He hit on the novel idea of rallying them with music.  Finding several regimental bands standing by bewildered as the battle closed in, Heintzelman ordered them to take up their instruments.   “Play! Play! It’s all you’re good for,” he shouted. “Play, damn it! Play some marching tune! Play ‘Yankee Doodle,’ or any doodle you can think of, only play something!”   Before long, over the roar of the guns, came the incongruous sound of “Yankee Doodle” and then “Three Cheers for the Red, White, and Blue.”   One of [General Joseph] Hooker’s men thought the music was worth a thousand men.   “It saved the battle,” he wrote.

Other records of the Civil War indicated even more episodes that included bands. Survivors of General George Pickett’s disastrous charge at the Battle of Gettysburg (July 3, 1863) remembered in later years that Confederate regimental bands stationed in the trees played stirring martial airs as they started off across the mile-long field that separated them from George Meade’s Army of the Potomac.  Those same bands greeted them with “Nearer, My God, To Thee” as they streamed back to the safety of their own lines after being repulsed at the stone wall.   At Antetem (16-17th September 1862) the band led the charge and many of the bandsmen received wounds, and yet kept the momentum of the troops alive with the sounding of the drums and the playing of various Confederate songs.

At Chancellorsville (1-4 May 1863) several Union Bands performed heroically in an attempt to stave off disaster threatened by the Confederate troops of General Stonewall Jackson.   General Winfield Scott ordered all of the bands to play “Rally Round The Flag Boys”.   Despite the shells and mountains of munitions flailing from both sides they stood in the center playing tunes such as the Yankee Doodle, and The Star Spangled Banner.   This performance during the fire storm had a good effect removing the pandemonium that existed and bringing calm to the troops.   This performance and the valor of the musicians under fire is indeed a glorious page in the history and heritage of military bands.   The bands became a very important asset for the regiments providing both music during lulls in the battles and as described during battles but also they were needed to accompany troops on ceremonial parades and from bivouac.   The regimental music was important to the men. They developed a sense of teamwork through song; the accompaniment of the bands brought them closer together.   Many of the personnel in the volunteer units came from the same home town and even were neighbors and the music provided a way to cement the bond of association.   The bands and the bandsmen were the catalyst for the formation and the preservation of loyalty on both sides.  The Civil War bands also played an important role in developing a link to the general public.   They were often called upon to perform concerts in war torn communities and at hospitals.

Instrumentation

A review of photographs of Civil War bands held by the Library of Congress suggests that the instrumentation for the most part remained consistent with the restricted figure of sixteen set by Congress in 1861. The instrumentation includes Eb Cornets, Bb Cornets, Eb Alto Horns, Bb Basses and percussion.   The instruments themselves were bell-up horns.  Many of the instruments were manufactured by J F Stratton of New York.   In addition Isaac Fisk who manufactured a variety of brass instruments such as the Eb and Bb soprano Cornets  introduced a catalogue of his instruments.   The horn-up style dominated the Civil War bands, and surprisingly was still in use long after the war had ended into the late 1890’s.   Photographs of numerous town bands in the heartland and the south of the USA indicated that the instruments were treasured by Civil War veterans.   The advent of the three valve brass band instruments began as the Civil war came an end and spelled the demise of the bell-up horns.

One aberration in regards to the 16 man limit was a photograph of the Fort Monroe Post band showing a twenty-four piece band in 1864.  This included a Drum Major bedecked in full dress and sash.   A plumed director also is shown and was no doubt the solo cornet.   Several photographs illustrate that the bands were outfitted in full dress uniforms and in particular the 9th Volunteer Reserve band is seen wearing shakos and a Hussar style uniform while performing at the Officers Unit of a hospital.

The Music of Civil War Bands

Robert E Lee once remarked that without music there would be no army.   Music played a very big part in the life of the soldier on both sides during the Civil war.  The outpouring of patriotic music was essential to building morale and to cement the bonds of soldiers.  Loyalty through music was nothing new, the ear piercing fife and clatter of drums as well as the somber wail of the bag pipes had stirred the spirit and imagination of soldiers for decades. Therefore the music of the Civil war capped off generations of wartime music.   The music was in such abundance that even today as musicologists and historians study authentic music of the period 1861-1865, it is a daunting task.

Bobby Horton, the song writer and performer who contributed to the sound track of enormously successful series by Ken Burns The Civil War (Baseball and the American West) has recreated the sounds of the war in his emotional and spirited recordings.   Songs such as ‘Battle Cry of Freedom’ and ‘Dixie’ evoke a strong sense of heart wrenching patriotism to their cause.   The bands played the songs to both entertain and to inspire the troops.   The playing of songs such as ‘Cheer Boys Cheer’ and ‘The South Shall Rise Up Free’ impacted on the soldiers and their will to succeed.   The marches and songs and other types of music had an enormous influence on the outcome of the war.   It was not strategy or numbers that always spelled the difference it was team work developed by a sense of belonging which in turn was created through the music of the Civil War.   The music also spawned a very different life for many of the musicians when the war finally ended.   This was true of many of the Afro-American bandsmen who moved to the cities of America and took with them their instrumental skills.   Thus as their musical proficiency was passed on to the next generation to start bands and create a music of their own, there emanated a new and exciting American phenomenon the origin of the jazz idiom.

The music of the Civil war was essentially folk music as suggested by many of the titles, below are some examples

Songs of the Confederacy

Bonnie Blue Flag
Dixie Land
Goober Peas
Dixie The Land of Cotton
The Yellow Rose of Texas

Songs of the Union

We are Coming Father Abraham
Marching Through Georgia
Sherman’s March to the Sea
Hard Tack
Just Before the Battle Mother
John Brown’s Body

The American Experience

The Civil War developed in the American people a powerful momentum.   This great trial by fire where Americans were pitted against each other instilled a patriotic fervor that we recognize today as the birth of their nation.   The bands and the music were  compelling catalysts for the joining of America.   Later John Philip Sousa wrote numerous marches emblematic of the great struggle.   His flag waving music was the culmination of the great surge forward for a Nation that was destined to become  the leader of the free world.

Arrangements for Military Band -Also see   Military band Journals

An arrangement is , in its widest sense a version for military band other than that for which the music was originally composed. There are arrangements for public performance to help broaden the scope of the military band and to make the  music more widely known.. Arrangements for military band became possible because of the advent  of consistent instrumentation and  musicians who turned their hand to devising a formula for the division of voices from different mediums. Piano music became the basis for the early arrangements followed by organ music which often led itself to the band. The introduction of the military band journals in Britain by Boosey,  Boosey and Hawkes and Chappell and the Pepper Military band Journals in the USA in the late 1880’s started a trend which helped to raise the standard of the military bands.(see Journals for Military band)

  Austro-Hungarian Empire- Bands and Music

 By approximately the year 600, Austria had become the ethnological meeting place of the Germanic and Slavic peoples. Inside these large groupings were many small groupings, all involved in various types of interaction as various rulers strove to enlarge their spheres of influence. These manipulations, among other things, led to almost continuous wars and dis-agreements. Naturally wars created a need for organized armies, and in turn, armies needed bands to provide stirring music for ceremonies and marching.

With the 19th Century rise of nationalism, each country of the Empire seemed to be creating music unique to itself. Yet the ever-present reassignment of bandsmen, bandmasters, and even bands allowed each to absorb musical traits of their new assignment environment. Consequently music which was composed, mostly by bandmasters, for military use-primarily marches can not be safely said to be “characteristically representative of any particular nationality.” This multi-national I character becomes most evident in the marches of the late 19th and early 20th Century composers (e.g., Fucik).

When discussing band music of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it is of major importance to keep in mind that this huge territory contained all, or parts of, what are now the following countries: Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Rumania and Yugoslavia. Following World War I, in 1918, this central and eastern European Empire was partitioned to form, or change the size of, these nations. Since the end of World War II, in 1945, some of the original territory of the Empire has been possessed by the U.S.S.R. So, any discussion of the bands and music must first take into consideration that national boundaries as we know them DID NOT EXIST at the time these marches were written; hence, conclusions relative to national musical styles must be made with extreme care.

            Early bands seem to be similar to those of other countries a small group (about a dozen) of heterogenous wind players. Experimentation with chromatic brass and improvements n woodwinds in the early 1800’s led to a standardization of instrumentation by the middle of the century. Oriental percussion, which dates back to the Turkish invasions of Europe, was accepted into bands about the end of the 16th Century.

The authorized size of a band was about 43 members, and-dependent upon the authority consulted-consisted of the following: 2-4 Db piccolos and flutes: 9-10 clarinets, mostly in Bb, but frequently using Eb soprano and often using Ab sopranino; 4 horns in Eb; 2-4 Bb fluegelhorns; 2 Bb bassfluegeihorns; 1-2 euphoniums; 3 trombones; 5-6 Eb trumpets; 1-2 Bb bass trumpets; 2-4 basses, in Eb, F and/or BBb; and 3 drummers. Some instrumentation lists include 2 bassoons; an Eb piston; and an Eb alto fluegelhorn. Though no list included oboes, it is known from biographies that some bands did indeed include oboes.

The actual composition of a band fluctuated for many of the same reasons contemporary military bands fluctuate. Players were enlisting and being discharged; other military duties occa-sionally called a player away from music-making; leave policies might have allowed for rotation of holiday time; and the ever-present bane of conductors-players’ illnesses-can always be relied upon to alter a band’s make-up.

Another cause of variation in size seems to have been the size and prestige of the regiment’s station. A regiment stationed in a large city would usually have many more than 43 members in its band, whereas smaller stations would have only the authorized strength. In large measure this condition depended upon the administration of the band, the status of the band in the eyes of the regiment, and political influences (not unlike the present day conditions of military bands!). The largest military band was the Navy Band of 120 members stationed at Pola on the Adriatic Sea; Franz Lehar was conductor of this group between 1894 and 1896.

The literature of the early bands was meant to serve strictly military functions. Mostly this meant providing marching music for troops and additional military ceremonial music. Marching music for different regiments might necessitate different tempi (for instance, cavalry marches were not played at the same tempo as infantry marches). Review ceremonies generally included a variety of tempi. Select instruments (e.g. trumpets or drums) were used for transmitting signals.

As bands increased in size and attempted to project sounds better in their outdoor functions, more and better brass instru¬ments were added. The standards of musicianship, once en¬trusted to the senior members of the band, rose; players were entering bands after training in some of the major conserv¬atories of the Empire. In particular, mention should be made of the large number of band conductor/composers who had attended the conservatory at Prague.

With improving capabilities of instruments and instrument¬alists, the calibre of compositions rose to a new level. Many of the older marches (as well as other works, we may assume) were forgotten as new ones replaced them. Schooled musi¬cians-for political, nationalistic, and other reasons($?)-began to write marches titled for, or dedicated to, the regiments’ patrons. Arrangements of popular works of the day were made; these ranged from folkdance tunes to opera overtures. (In the days before radio and television, bands did more to popular¬ize orchestral literature than did orchestras.) It is also an inter¬esting sidelight that many military music organizations per¬formed both as orchestras, with some wind players doubling on strings, as well as bands.

Great discrepancies existed between bands’ instrumentation, tuning and literature until about 1860. At about that time Andreas Leonhardt, besides having developed the helicon and written compositions for band, standardized these areas for Austrian bands. Interestingly, Wilhelm Wieprecht had made almost identical contributions at just about the same time for German bands.

Many town bands were in the process of forming at about this same time, mostly through the efforts of military musicians whose terms of service had expired. These groups numbered about 15-20 players, which made performance of the literature of their service days almost impossible. So in the small towns there was a return to the march and dance literature, which was particularly appropriate, in that these bands performed mainly at local festivals.

An interesting example of the pendulum constantly swinging is that after World War I, Austrian band society took a position against transcriptions, favoring the use of marches, polkas, etc. This set composers to writing in this genre, and with the great number of small bands, publishers did not hesitate to keep up production. This same society, after World War II, leaned toward developing a band literature of a more symphonic character! This movement is still underway, but as is evident in all nations, the idealistic requests have not met with realistic demand. So large scale works are not being published in great numbers.

Almost without exception the regimental band directors were products of the military band system, having enlisted and per-formed as military bandsmen. A sizable number were capable composers, at least in the smaller forms, and all were skilled at arranging for their bands. Many had studied at conservatories.

The bandmaster was both chief administrator and chief musi¬cian, with responsibilities delegated in varying degrees and in various ways. In Austria, upon becoming bandmaster, he was no longer considered an enlisted man, but neither was he an officer! At the same time he could not be considered a civilian; A contract between him and his regiment outlined the regula¬tions of his employment; these regulations generally differed from regiment to regiment.

The military bandmaster was obliged to conduct himself as an officer, but he did not rate a salute, nor could he mete out disciplinary measures. His uniform, modeled after that of an officer, contained enough discrepancies to keep him from being-mistaken for an officer; yet it was gaudy enough to mark him as someone of importance. Quite in contrast, his musical duties and status have always been very clear and well-defined.

At this point it might be wise to include a caution to the researcher involved in band music. The term “Bohmischer Musikant”, which translates as Bohemian (or Czech) musician, is still used idiomatically to describe an outstanding musician. It does not necessarily mean that the person was Bohemian, nor does it imply that other countries of the Empire were not capable of producing fine musicians.

An aspect of military music frequently misunderstood, es¬pecially in the U.S., are the “numbered marches”. In Austria these are the old marches assigned to particular regiments of the former Austro-Hungarian Army. In some cases their use was restricted to that particular regiment exclusively, which is simi¬lar to the regulations governing bugle, trumpet and drum signals. This kind of restriction seems to be a valid reason why some of the marches have fallen into disuse.

The yardstick by which past generations judged marches was by their appropriateness as marching music, i.e., did the march make the listener want to get up and march? Tempos were firmly dictated and adhered to. As examples, defiles at one point were mandated at 113; 1846 regulations set ordinary marches at 95, maneuver marches at 108, and the double march at 120.

These “numbered marches”, where the numbers correspond to the number of the regiment to which they are assigned, often have historically interesting titles or dedications. Some are named for, or dedicated to, the regiment’s patron-a noble¬man of high rank. Some are based on a motive or theme of historical significance. Often the regiment’s unique trumpet and/or drum signal is included in the march.

Some of the marches, although assigned to one infantry regi¬ment, have been adopted by others. A case in point is the “Erzherzog-Albrecht Marsch” of Karel Komzak (jr.). Composed in 1888 it is the regimental march of the 44th Infantry Regiment which was stationed at Kaposvar. But it is also used as the official march of the 9th Dragoon Regiment and the 5th Artillery Regiment. To add to the possible confusion, in the German Army March Collection it appears as 11/263.

The “heart” of the Austrian and Slavic bands is the brass quartet consisting of first and second fluegelhorns, bass fluegel¬horn, and what I will functionally call “tenor tuba”. In marches the voice parts for which they are responsible roughly corre¬spond to soprano, alto, tenor and bass, respectively. All other parts are doublings, either in unison or at the octave, or a rhythmic elaboration of the chord structure.

Barring nationalistic tendencies, different pedagogy, and other similar excuses for not attempting to analyze what one hears, there are some definite characteristics that contribute to the uniquely different sound of Austrian and Slavic bands. The above-mentioned “heart” has a more mellow and broader sound than that produced by our modified comets. When trumpets are allowed to predominate, they are encouraged to do so with a brilliant sound. The use of many more instruments, including cylindrical brasses, on the off-beats serve to make them more prominent. In Austria particularly the valve trombone is used more frequently than the slide variety, contributing to a differ¬ence in low brass sound. The harder, crisper, shorter articula¬tions create a tighter rhythmic feel and a more energetic rendition; generally slurs are avoided in favor of a true legato articulation. The use of so-called “German” clarinets creates a much more mellow sound, particularly in the upper register, than our French-styled instruments. The snare drum is generally thinner than those used for marches in American bands, but the snares are looser. The bass drum is comparable to the Scotch bass drum used by American marching bands, but the heads are not tight. Cymbals are of a small diameter.

Much information concerning European bands exists in the language of the countries concerned. An exciting amount of

research is underway in many countries, being undertake through the auspices of varying agencies. It is hoped that a significant amount of the resulting material will find its way into the English language.

 Band Music Arrangers Canadian

Military and civilian bands were integral to Canada’s early performances of instrumental music and the dissemination of larger non-choral works such as symphonies, oratorios, and operas. Accordingly, there was desire for such works as well as popular tunes to be adapted for the instrumentation available within individual bands, the earliest of which included the Sharon Band and the Société Ste-Cécile band. The activity of early band music arrangers is difficult to trace until the mid-19th century, when the repertoire began to circulate in print as piano arrangements. Many other genres of music have also been arranged for band, including marches, dance tunes, and medleys of traditional songs. An example of the latter is Joseph Vézina’s Mosaïque sur des airs canadiens (1880), in which he arranged a medley of Quebec folk and patriotic tunes. Band music arrangers active during the first half of the 20th century include J.-J. Gagnier, Arthur Wellesley Hughes, Louis-Philippe Laurendeau, Charles O’Neill, and Charles Thiele. Arrangers from the latter half of the 20th century included Kenneth Bray, Kenneth Campbell, William McCauley, Jack Sirulnikoff, and Morris Surdin.Band Arrangers British

Many of most significant  world military band arrangers were products of British military bands. The work of the Godfrey family was exceptional. Charles Godfrey was the earliest of the family to make his mark and became the editor of  the first military band publication Julien’s Military Journal . Later other family members including Adolph Frederick Godfrey became bandmasters and arranged a memorable collection of band scores In the period from 1910 to 1930 the most illustrious of the British band arrangers was Frank Winterbottom. He had been the director of the Royal Marine band at Plymouth and instructor instrumentation at Kneller Hall. Winterbottom ’s arrangements of band music remains as one of  the the most important aspects of the military band movement . He provided over 300 works for band most of which was published by Boosey and Chappell. The work of William Henry (WJ) Duthoit  .was prolific in the field of military band arrangements. He was also first a bandmaster and on his retirement from the North Staffordshire  Regiment in 1929 became the chief arranger for Chappell’s Army Journal.

Band Arrangers Germany 

Wilhelm Wieprecht is considered the father of European military bands and his work as an arranger was both prolific and remarkable given the early instruments for which he arranged. Much of his work remains to this day in the repertoire of  European bands. Among his arrangements were 12 works by Beethoven consisting of the first 5 symphonies and seven by Mozart and 3 by Wagner.

Band Arrangers Luxembourg

World renown composer and arranger Pol Albrecht was a military musician for over fifty years in Luxembourg. He was the conductor of the Band of the Garde Grande-Ducale where in addition to his numerous compositions he provided dozens of professional arrangements of popular songs and orchestral works.

Band Arranging France

Band Arranging Czechoslovakia

The three most well know  Czech  band arrangers were all members of one family who had careers in military bands. They were the The Komzak family. Karel  Komzak(1823 1893) his son also known as Karl (1850-1905) and the grandson Karel (1878-1924) Their output in teh field of arrangements for band was prolific and may have numbered in the thousands.

Band Arrangers Sweden

Military musician, conductor , composer and arranger Per Berg is  universally known for his band arrangements and original marches. His arrangements of both the classical and popular repertoire are known throughout Europe and North America.. He also arranged music for the movie industry in Sweden and made the music available for concert band.

Band Arrangers Norway

Oscar Borg, was sometimes known as the March King of Norway. His contribution to band arrangements and military music was immense. He was the  military band conductor of the Eastern Region military band for fifty years and during that time arranged hundreds of light popular and classical music for band. He also provided numerous choral backgrounds and hymns for church services.

Ashton Charles Frederick

b 1927 d 1998 was a member of the Royal Canadian Artillery as a trumpeter. Later he became a member of the Queens Own Rifles bugle band. He helped to organize the Canadian Branch of the International Military Music Society and had a deep interest  military music.

Australian Army Bandboy Training School

This was developed  as a  far sighted venture by Lt Colonel R A Newman to overcome the shortage of Bandsmen to fill vacancies in some of the less attractive locations and postings in the army bands. The school was a spectacular success with 362 musicians graduating in the 29 years that the training scheme existed. 

Australian Military Bands

On 2 February 1788 at Sydney Cove, the reading of the Governor’s Commission was accompanied by music from the fife-and-drum corps musicians.

Military music, beginning with the fife-and-drum corps of the First Fleet, was the only public music-making apart from folk music sung in the public hotels. Both the fife-and-drum corps and the regimental band gave open-air concerts. The few musical instruments brought with them, including pianos, were often dragged overland to new homes.

Military bands have accompanied Australian ceremonies, parades, church services, mess dinners and performed at concerts on innumerable occasions since then. Musicians have long been incorporated into active armed service units, often doubling as medics. They have accompanied troops into action, sometimes as part of a fighting unit, and sometimes as a band.

Civilian pipe and drum bands have had a long and successful history in Australia, with some bands having performed continuously for over 100 years.

There have been a number of changes to the formation and re-formation of the military bands in Australia. Through all of these changes many outstanding musicians have received their musical training in the military and then gone on to contribute to music generally. Depending on the occasion, military musicians perform in a variety of musical styles – from jazz to classical, christmas carols to rock and pop.

(1)Defence Force School of Music

The Defence Force School of Music provides further and advanced training to support the skills and development of practicing and senior military musicians.The Army School of Music, located originally at Balcombe, was the foundation of the Defence Force School of Music located at Meares House, Simpson Barracks Victoria, in 1984. They were joined by the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) School of Music, formerly at HMAS Cerberus, to form a joint services facility. Entry to military bands is usually assessed on the basis of an audition.

(2)Australian military bands

Royal Australian Navy (RAN) Band

Royal Australian Navy musicians have been playing at events since Federation in 1901. Since its inception, the RAN Band has maintained a reciprocal exchange program with the Royal Marines in Kent, England, which has included the training of Bandmasters. Since 1958 the RAN Band has produced 28 records, mostly for EMI and numerous recording sessions for ABC radio programs.

(3)Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Command Band

The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) Command Band was formed in 1923 at Point Cook, Victoria. Early highlights included performing at the opening of the Parliament House in Canberra, 1927. In 1975 the RAAF Command Band won the award of a Gold Record for the recording Thirty Smash Hits of the War Years. The RAAF Command Band has various ensembles that perform at regal, vice-regal, Defence Force ceremonial and public performances: ceremonial band, concert band, marching band, ceremonial fanfare team, ten-piece stage band, brass quintet, woodwind quintet, clarinet quartet, and jazz ensemble.

(4)Royal Military College (RMC) Band

The Royal Military College (RMC) Band is the official band for all regal, vice regal, diplomatic and state functions held in the national capital. For example, ‘Trooping the Colour’ in the presence of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II; representing Australia in Paris for the 50th anniversary of Armistice Day; and participating in the official openings of the Sydney Opera House and Parliament House, Canberra. The RMC Band is also involved in community relations and since its formation in 1954 has played a prominent role in Canberra’s musical life.

(5)Australian Army Bands

Due to the size of Australia and the locations of departure ports for overseas service, bands today tend to be geographically dispersed. The Australian Army has bands based in each state capital. The military musical needs of Canberra are serviced by the Royal Military College Band, Duntroon.

The Australian Army Band Corps Association was formed in 1989 to encourage communication between all former and current members of Army bands.

(6)Active service

Active military band service was first recorded in 1899, when the Band of the Victorian Naval Brigade sailed to China as part of the Naval contingent to suppress the Boxer Rebellion.

Unfortunately there is little record of active military band service during World War I. In World War II musicians served with distinction in various capacities. In addition to their musical duties, bandsmen worked as gun crews, shell bearers in magazines, first aid parties and as lookouts during day and night watches.

In 1950 the 3rd Battalion Royal Australian Regiment , complete with bandsmen, embarked at Kure, Japan, for Korea:

Although he never played it in Korea (he gained the military medal for fighting infantryman at Kapyong in April 1951) Private Dunque went to war armed with a bass tuba and an Owen sub-machine-gun.
The AABC Association:
http://www.aabcassociation.com.au/Pictorial_History.html

Naval musicians also saw action in Korean waters whilst aboard the HMAS Sydney in 1953.

In the Vietnam War, the First Battalion Royal Australian Regiment (1RAR) Army Band musicians were required to work as stretcher bearers at a medical platoon between performances. In 1969 the Royal Australian Air Force Central Band toured Vietnam and Malaysia for ceremonial performances and morale boosting concerts. The Navy Fleet Band also performed two concert tours of Vietnam during the early 1970s.

In 1988 the RMC Band traveled to Bougainville, PNG, to perform for 300 Australian soldiers based in the province as part of the peace-monitoring group. In 1999 the RMC Band was deployed to Dili, East Timor, in support of INTERFET. A ‘Tour of Duty’ concert was presented which featured artists such as Kylie Minogue, John Farnham, Gina Jeffries and James Blundell.

Over Christmas and New Year 2005-6 the RAN Band were redeployed to the Middle East Area of Operations. Musicians from the Sydney and Melbourne detachments, Defence School of Music and the Directorate of Music formed a contingent that presented 25 concerts in 8 separate locations, over a 16 day period. Three and a half tonnes of equipment were transported to each concert location.

(7)Australian Police bands

The NSW Police Band has performed at police and state government functions since its formation in 1895. Comprised of four police officers and 29 professional musicians, the NSW Police Band has participated in many high profile events such as royal visits, papal visits and major parades. Ensembles include stage band, wind quintet, jazz ensemble and brass quintet.

Other Australian police bands include the Victorian Police Band and Pipe Band, South Australian Police Band, Western Australia Police Pipe Band, Queensland Police Pipe Band and the Tasmania Police Pipe Band.

(9)Pipe and drum bands

Pipe and drum bands have performed at civilian and military functions in Australia since the early 1800s. Australia is known worldwide for its bagpipe playing. The Australian Ladies Pipe Band toured worldwide in the 1920s, and the Victoria Police Pipe Band won the world championship in Scotland in 1998.

An indication of the range and extent of pipe and drum bands is evident from the Western Australian bands. The Scotch College Pipe Band was established in 1947 and paraded for the first time a year later with 8 pipers and 5 drummers. This band continues to perform and has achieved success in WA Pipe Band Association competitions. The WA Presbyterian Ladies College (PLC) Pipe Band was formed in 1981 and performs regularly for school and community functions. The PLC Pipe Band has also toured Australia and Scotland. The WA Coastal Scottish Pipe Band was established from pipers and drummers employed at the Fremantle Railway workshops in 1898. It is one of the oldest civilian bands in the southern hemisphere.

(10)Australian Royal Navy Bands

Prior to the Federation in  Australia in 1901 there were Naval Brigade bands belonging to each state, most of whom had small naval elements. Plans were made to form a national navy and ships had been build by 1911. In 1913 the flagship HMAS Australia a battle cruiser was commissioned and the need arose to recruit a band for the ship. Six musicians were selected from Australia and the remained from ex-Royal , Marines and Army musicians. They were sent to the Royal Marine school of music in Plymouth. The uniform selected was that of the Royal Marines with buttons and badges of  theRoyal Australian navy. All of the musicians  that were selected were capable of  being able to perform in a band or orchestra. This is often referred to as being “two-handed”. The flagship band formed the only permanent band in the RAN until 1927 when a second band was formed for the HMAS Cerberus training establishment in Victoria. Over the next 10 years the strength of the navy increased and most of the Cruisers and had bands. During the there was a considerable loss of band ranks due to enemy action. The band,s action station was in teh Transmitting station, the same as the Royal Marine bands and casualties occurred in Perth, Canberra, and Australia  with an entire band being lost in Sydney. With demobilization after the war there was a decline in band personnel and a school of music was formed to train musicians to fill the void. Bands continued to serve on the Aircraft carriers and shore establishments. Today there are two navy bands. The bands returned to traditional navy uniforms in 1960 because the  Royal Marines uniforms were too similar to the Army dress uniforms. The bands are of a very high standard  and were the first bands world wide to employ women musicians in their ranks.

Band of the Royal Air Force of Oman

Recognizing the need for a military band system the ruler of Oman HM Sultan Qaboos bin Said initiated training and development plans for ar,med forces bands in Oman. The problem was that there were no band experts in Oman and a recruiting drive was inaugurated to invite expatriates to start the training. and the necessary resources were made available. In all seven bands were formed between 1972 and 1982.  In 1983 Wing Commander Ian Kendrick was hired to undertake the employment of training musicians to both read music and to enhance the ability of the RAFO bands A school of music was organized and was located with teh main band. In addition traditional segment of  Oman music was attached to teh school for training purposes. The groups were trained to specialize in Omani didh-dash (robe) traditional Arabic songs accompanying themselves on lutes (udes) Arabic violins, kanoon(a kind of zither) flute and Arabic Drums. In addition to the military band there is also band of pipes and drums. The bands have appeared on numerous occasions at International Festivals . Other bands in Oman include four Army bands A Navy band of Oman which has brass band instrumentation and the Band of the Royal Oman Police ,./ The Police band have the unusual distinction of having a mounted unit of pipers riding  and playing on camels

Bandmaster

In the British Armed Forces, a Bandmaster is always a Warrant Officer, with a commissioned officer who leads a band being known as the Director of Music. Directors of Music are all former Bandmasters who have been commissioned.

British Army line infantry and cavalryregimental bands were led by Bandmasters until the re-organisation of bands and the creation of the Corps of Army Music in 1994. The larger corps bands, as well as those of the Foot Guards and Household Cavalry, were known as Staff Bands, and were led by a commissioned Director of Music with a Bandmaster as his deputy. In 1994 the number of bands was reduced and all bands became Staff Bands. Bandmaster is an appointment held by a Warrant Officer Class 1, who has the designation WO1(BM) and wears a unique appointment badge of a crownedlyre in a wreath underneath the WO1’s badge (the Royal Arms of the United Kingdom). The senior playing musician of the band is the Band Sergeant Major (or Band Corporal Major in the Household Cavalry), a Warrant Officer Class 2.

Royal Marines bands have been led by commissioned Directors of Music for many years. Bandmaster is an appointment which may be held by a Warrant Officer Class 1 (WO1(BM)), who is equivalent to an Army Bandmaster, or a Warrant Officer Class 2 (WO2(BM)), who is equivalent to an Army Band Sergeant Major and is sometimes known as the Assistant Bandmaster. The Corps Bandmaster is the senior Bandmaster of the Royal Marines and the chief non-commissioned adviser to the Senior Director of Music, Royal Marines.

Royal Air Force bands have also traditionally been led by commissioned Directors of Music. The Bandmaster is a Warrant Officer and fills the same position as the Army equivalent (RAF WOs do not hold appointments as do those in the other services). The senior playing musician, the Band Sergeant, is a Flight Sergeant.

Band of the Garde Republican

Mention has been made of the disbandment of the Fanfares of La Garde Royale in 1848, but a few months later it was re-formed as La Garde de Paris and included twelve trumpeters under Trumpet-Major Jean Paulus, who composed a special fanfare for the presentation of Colors on the Champ de Mars, Paris in May 1852, by which time the Second Empire had been proclaimed by the new Emperor Napoleon III.   The Military Governor of Paris, Marshal Magnan, publicly congratulated Paulus. Within two years the fanfare was enlarged to a full band and given the title of La Musique de la Garde de Paris.   In 1871 it was changed to La Musique de La Garde Republicaine.   France maintained her bands during the Crimean War (1854-56) and many went to the front.  They gained high praise from her Allies whose own bands were organized far less effectively than the French. They continued to receive strong support, as a Decree of 1854 allowed a band of fifty-five for the Imperial Guard and bands of thirty-five for the Cavalry, with commissioned bandmasters.   It was said that the music of the French bands at Inkerman did as much to drive back the Russians as the bayonet.   Yet after the war in Italy (1859) there were drastic cuts and in 1867 the cavalry bands were abolished.   Even so, in that same year a Military Band Congress was staged at the Paris Exhibition. The following countries competed and received awards in the order given: Prussia, France, Austria, Bavaria, Russia, Holland, Baden, Belgium and Spain. The smallest band was Bavaria’s – fifty-one.   Austria had seventy-six, but Prussia combined two bands to make eighty-seven players.   The judges were Ambroise Thomas, Leo Delibes, Felicien Cesar David, Franz von Bulow, Hansluck and Kastner.

France’s agonizing period from 19 July 1870 until 1 March 1871, from her declaration of war on Prussia until her acceptance of peace terms, has little relevance to this inquiry, except to observe that the country returned to its peacetime life rapidly.   Even during the quickly ensuing blood-thirsty suppression of the Commune of Paris (when the barricades went up again) theatre and café life in the capital was hardly affected.   The bands settled down again, the leaders being the Garde Republicaine under Paulus and the Mounted Guides under Cressinois.   In 1872 the former represented France at the Boston Peace Festival.   Sellenick took over from Paulus in 1873, to be succeeded by Wettge (1884), Pares (1893), Balay (1911), Dupont (1927), Brun (1945), Richard (1969) and Boutry (1973~ )- and names as famous in French military music as Sousa, Santelmann, Schoepper, Benter, Whiting and Gabriel in America, and Godfrey, Williams, Rogan, O’Donnell, Ricketts, Miller, Jaeger and Dunn in England. An American bandmaster named Cappa who visited Paris in 1889 described the ensemble of the Garde Republicaine as almost perfect. For well over a century it has been regarded as the premier bend of France and it remains one of the great bands of the world. Nevertheless, it cannot be denied that today in France there are others deserving of equal approbation, such as the major staff bands of the French Navy, Army and Air Force, and Les Gardiens de la Paix de Paris and La Police Nationale. These high standards of rendition arise from the meticulous organization of military music in France and the methods of personnel selection. With growing record production this is being increasingly appreciated outside France. Yet coverage on French radio and television is surprisingly limited.

Bands of the Household Cavalry-Dismounted

The bands of the British Household Cavalry are comprised of the Band of the Life Guards and the Band of the Blues and Royals. Both bands carry out similar duties as other bands of the Household Brigade of Guards. Both bands  are tasked to carry out duties at Sandhurst , the Officers Training School

Band Instrumentation Military Bands

The Following Chart will serve to illustrate the  instrumental diversity of military bands. This is a generalization based on numerous photographs of bands in North America and in England and the Continent.  Extant instruments are also included. Instruments such as tenor horns, sax horns are not included and are charted in the American Civil war band instrumentation. A short list of other instruments is added below the chart.

YEAR 1792 1815 1846 1896 1910 1920 1941 1950 1975 2002
Piccolos   1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1
Flutes     2 3 4 2 1 4 2 1
Oboes*1 2 2 2 3 3 2 1 3 1 1
Ab Clarinets     2 2            
Eb Clarinets   1 2 2 2 1 1      
Bb Clarinets*3 2 4 10 12 12 10 8 16 10 8
Alto Clarinet       1 1 1   1    
Bass Clarinet 2     2 2 1 1 2 1 1
Bassoon*3 2 2 2 2 3 1   2 1  
Soprano Sax       1 1          
Alto Sax       2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Tenor Sax       1 1 1 2 2 1 1
Baritone sax         1 1 1 1 1 1
Alto Horns     2              
French Horns 2 2 2 4 4 4 3 4 3 2
Cornets   2 4 6 6 5        
Trumpets     2 2 2 2 6 6 6 4
Flugal Horns                    
Trombones   2 3 4 4 3 3 4 3 3
Baritones       1 1          
Euphonium   1   2 2 1 1 2 1 1
Tubas       4 4 3 3 4 2 2
Serpents   1                
Ophicleides     1              
Bass Drum*4   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Cymbals   1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Side Drums*5   1 2 3 3 2 1 3 1 1
Timpani       1 1 1 1 1    

*1 Oboe doubling Cor Anglais,  *2Clarinet division – Solo, 1st or repiano,2nd and 3rd *3bassoon Contra Bassoon, *4Early British bands had Janissaries or Black percussionists.*5 Side or military drums and in 1950 drum sets and other percussion instruments such as  xylophone, bells and non definitive pitched instruments.  

Belgian Light Cavalry Bands

The Three Regiments of Belgian Light Cavalry was created after the Belgian revolution of September 1830 As with other light cavalry regiments the JP(Jagers te Paard=Belgian Light Cavalry) had its own military band from 1830 to 1913.The 2nd Belgian Light Cavalry Regiment (2 JP) was created by a decree of the temporary government in October 1830 at Gent. The regiment had been placed under the command of the Colonel of Haene of Steenhuyse. On 22 December 1831, the Commander-in-Chief received the standard from the hands of King Leo­pold I in Louvain. During the lst World War the regiment distinguished itself in the battle of Antwerp and in the trenches of the Yser. The regiment also partici­pated in the battle of Reigersvliet in 1918. During the 2nd World War the regi­ment was active in the battles of the Gete and Leie.

On 1 October 1948, the regiment was reformed as a reconnaissance unit in Siegen (Germany).

The standard has the following battle honours: ‘Campagne 1914-1918′, ‘An­vers’, ‘Reigersvliet’, ‘Gete’ and ‘Leie 1940′. In addition the standard has the dis­tinction of the `War 1914-1918′, `1940′ and the Colours 3rd class of the order of Leopold. The march of 2 JP was written by Jean Moortgat. Jean Moortgat was born on 27 March 1870 in Moorsel. In 1885, he became a light cavalry musician and in 1905 trumpet-major of 2 JP. After 1910 he became the bandmaster of the same regiment, and later of the 22nd and 2nd Regiment of Line Infantry prior to retiring in 1924 with the rank of Music Director – Captain. He died in 1943.

After the 2nd World War this regiment had a non-official fanfare band in Ludenscheid (Germany). This fanfare band played regularly and sometimes in the traditional uniform of Belgian Light cavalry. The 4th Belgian Light Cavalry Regiment (4 ChCh) was created at the time of the reorganization of the army in 1913. This regiment participated during the 1 st World War. During this war it received several recognitions for the 2nd Division. The regiment distinguished itself in the defense of Antwerp, the Leie and the trenches of the Yser.

On 1 February 1961, the 4th ChCh was reformed, becoming part of the lst Belgian Corps in Germany. The standard has the following battle honours: ‘Cam­pagne 1914-1918′ and ‘Anvers’.

The march of 4th CHCH(Chasseurs) was been written by Jules Honnay. Jules Honnay was born on 23 May 1886 in Embourg. In 1906, he was recruited by the Band of the 7th of Line Infantry Regiment. He was promoted to Bandmaster-Assistant. He became Bandmaster after the creation of the Band of the 17th of Line Infantry Regiment. He also wrote the regimental march of the 17th of Line. Later, he be­came successively Bandmaster of the 2nd Grenadiers, of the 8th Line Infantry and finished his career in the I st Carabiniers. Honnay won the first prize for harmony, counterpoint and fugue. The march ‘Un century has passe’ is one of his most known works. Honnay died in 1953.  

Boston Brigade Band

The Boston Brigade Band (1821-ca.1863) was a brass and reed band that performed frequently in Boston, Massachusetts and elsewhere in New England. Numerous musical pieces performed by the band were subsequently published as sheet music, including “The Mammoth Cod Quickstep” of 1839, and many others. The band received wide acclaim in its day, and was fondly recalled in the decades after its dissolution, particularly for its combination of both brass and wind instruments.[] ][2][3]

In 1821, at the request of Captain Martin Brimmer, Dan Simpson (proprietor of the Green Dragon tavern) “organized the Boston brigade band. … Maj. Simpson was just the man to carry out successfully Capt. Brimmer’s desire, for besides being well acquainted with the few musicians in Boston, he was the popular hostof the tavern … at which many of the old members [of the Green Dragon bar often congregated.[4]

The band often performed at appearances of the Boston Light Infantry. “The h, was not simply a brigade band in name; the leader having a warrant conferred the brigadier general and forming a component part of the brigade, was under immediate and sole command and orders of the general [William Sullivan].°[

Through the years, leaders of the band included: Asa Fillebrown (1821 18281835);[6][7] James Kendall (18261827);[8] Abel F. Knight (18361844): J.H. Seipp (18441848);[10] Patrick S. Gilmore (1852, ca.1859);[11] and E -Weston (ca.1858).[12]

Band members in 1824 included:[13] John Bartlett (trumpet); James Clark (c:_ inet); Lemuel Clark (French horn); William Crombie (bassoon); Asa Fillebr( (clarinet); George W. Foster (octave flute); James K. Kendall (clarinet); Rich_.. Madden (bugle); Joel R. Mann (clarinet); Moses Mann (serpent); Willard Mann (clarinet); J. Henry Niebuhr (trumpet); Calvin Simonds (clarinet); Jonah _ Stanley (bass drum); Asa Warren (bass horn); John B. Warren; Samuel Wether7t

(French horn); Charles Wright (cymbals). “William Crombie, who beat the c% bols, kept a tavern on the corner of Cambridge and Garden” streets.[ 141 "Lerr.~

Clark was a crusty man, but a good musician. He became drum major of the h.zW. in September, 1830(?), on Centennial day. ... He wore a scarlet coat, flat coci:_-L hat and carried a red baton, which he never knew how to swing, saying: 'He wasu going to play any of them monkey tricks."'[ 151

"The band uniform ... was especially neat and attractive and bore a m difference to any then worn by the militia. The coat was blue, of the same and pattern as worn by the officers of the U.S. army, with three rows of bell bu on the front, and was further set off by a gold-laced collar."[ 16)

According to one account, "the band grew in proficiency, and became quite ebrated. It existed until 1861, when it was dissolved by Mr. Eben Flagg. After the band dissolved, some of the musicians joined the Edmands' Band Orchestra, formed in 1863 by Thomas Ormsby Edmands.[18]

Selected performances

Online image: 1840, Baltimore, Maryland

•             1821, Sept. 23 Brigade muster, Boston Common[ 191

•             1823, Oct. 15 Salem Light Infantry 18th Anniversary, Salem MA[20]

•             1831, June Boston Guards visit to Philadelphia. “The band gave two c

Musical Fund Hall, which were greatly applauded, and attended by 12 a

persons.”[21 ] • 1830, Oct. 25 Salem Light Infantry 25th Anniversary, Salem MA[22]

•             1832 Laying the cornerstone of the Masonic Temple, Boston.

•             1833, Oct. 16 Salem Light Infantry 28th Anniversary, Salem MA[23]

•             1835, Oct. 16 Salem Light Infantry 30th Anniversary, Salem MA[24]

•             1837, Oct. 4 Parade on Berry Street, Boston

•             1837, Aug. 24 Salem Light Infantry 32nd Anniversary, Salem MA[25]

•             1838, Oct. Regimental parade, Boston[26]

•             1840, May 29 Parade in Ipswich, MA[27]

•             1840, July Encampment of the Boston Light Infantry, Springfield Mass.

•             1841, Aug. 17 Boston[28]

•             1843, Feb. Odeon, Boston[29]

•             1844, May 30 Abstinence Convention, Boston[30]

•             1844, June 26 Salem, MA[31]

•             1844, Aug. 15 Yale commencement, New Haven CT[32]

•             1853, May 26 Keene, New Hampshire, centennial celebration[33]

•             1854, August University of Vermont semi-centennial celebration[34]

•             1855 Middlesex Cattle Show and Exhibition. “The Spading Match took place at ten,

immediately after the plowing, and, as usual, drew a large concourse of spectators.

The stirring strains of the Boston Brigade Band lent their aid to the occasion, and the

scene soon became an animated one, the spectators at once fixing upon their favorite

competitors, and becoming as deeply interested as the spaders themselves. “(351

•             1855, Oct. 9 Salem Light Infantry 50th Anniversary, Salem MA[36]

•             1856 Brown University commencement[37]

•             1856, Oct. 2 Reception of President Franklin Pierce in New Hampshire.[38]

•             1859 Visit of the Knights Templar of Boston to Masons in Richmond, California[39]

•             1863, Sept. 2 Arrival of the 54th Massachusetts Infantry at Commercial Wharf,

Boston[40]

Sheet music 1820s

• The Boston Brigade march as performed by the Brigade Band at the reception of Genl. Lafayette; arranged for the piano forte by James Hewitt. Boston Published by James L. Hewitt at his music store no. 70 Market St., [1824?]. Also known as Lafayettes quick step.(41]

• The Norfolk guards favorite quickstep as performed by the Boston Brigade band arranged for the piano forte. New York Published by James L. Hewitt & Co. at their music saloon, [between 1827 and 18291

1830s

•             The Massachusetts Grand Railway march / as played by the Boston Brigade Band.

Boston (197 Washington Street, Boston) John Ashton, [ca. 1830]

•             President Jackson’s grand march / arranged for the piano forte by Mr. Peile. 2nd

ed. New York Published by J.L. Hewitt, [18301835]. “Performed by the Boston

Brigade Band and presented by them to the publisher.”——————————————–

4Corner-stone march. Boston (164 Washington St.) Published by C. Bradlee. “As performed by the Boston Brigade Band at the ceremony of laying the corner, of the Masonic Temple, Boston. Dedicated to the fraternity by Ch. Zeuner.”

•             Rangers quick step. Boston Published for the author by C. Bradlee; Boston Washington St.) sold by S.H. Parker; Boston Pendleton’s Lithography, 1834, spectfully dedicated to Capt. C. R. Lowell and the officers and members ~ Boston Rifle Rangers. Performed for the first time by the Boston Brigade I, Augt.26, 1834. Composed (in part) by T. Comer.”

•             Rangers trip to Westborough or lion quickstep. Boston Published for the auth, C. Bradlee ; Pendletons Lithogy, 1834. “Respectfully dedicated to Capt. Ch:(¬Paine and the officers and members of the Rifle Rangers, Boston. Performed f( first time on their visit to the Lyon Farm by the Brigade Band at the opening ~ railroad to Westborough, November 15th, 1834. Composed by James Hooton.

•             The Tiger quick step / composed by Thos. Comer. Boston (115 Washingtor Boston) Oliver Ditson, 1834. “Respectfully dedicated to Capt. E. Weston an:. Officers & members of the Boston Light Infantry, performed for the first time al annversary 1834 by the Boston Brigade Band.”

•             City guards quickstep. Boston Published by Oliver Ditson ; Pendletons Lit 1835. “Composed by Walch, arranged for the pianoforte with a flute accompani ~-¬and also for two flutes by Ch.Zeunec Dedicated to the City Guards by the B,

Brigade Band,”

•             Paine’s quick step: respectfully dedicated to Capt. Chas. C. Paine, as perfonn: _ the Boston Brigade Band at the encampment of the Rifle Rangers. Boston: P~-, & Ditson, 1836.

•             Pulaski quickstep. Boston Published by Oliver Ditson ; Boston Moores Lith_. : “As played by the Boston Brigade Band. Respectfully dedicated to Gen. J. L Amee, first commander of the Pulaski Guards by .lames Hooton.”

•             Sutton’s quick step respectfully dedicated to Capt. William Sutton, and the off and members of the Salem Independent Cadets by the Boston Brigade Band. B,-,~. Parker & Ditson, 1837.

•             Charles Zeuner. Herz’s quick step: as played by the Boston Brigade Band arr:4 for the piano forte. Boston: Parker & Ditson, 1837.

•             The Berry Street Rangers quickstep. Boston Published by H.Prentiss ; T. M, Lithogy, [ca. 1837). "Our Country is Safe" as performed by the Boston Brigade at the Volunteer Parade of the company Oct. 4th, 1837, and dedicated to the o~ and members of the company by the Boston Brigade Band. Composed by W

•             The Dennis quickstep. Boston Published by G. P. Reed ; Thos. Moores LithoL 1839. "As performed by the Boston Brigade Band. Respectfully dedicated to Louis Dennis, officers, and members of the Hancock Light Infantry. Pertornct the Ist time at their anniversary Oct.28th, 1839. Composed and arranged f% pianoforte and flute by B. A. BUrdiu."

•             Greys quickstep. Boston Published by Henry Prentiss ; T. Moores Lith.. "Respectfully dedicated to Capt. John C. Park, officers, and members of the Composed and arranged for the piano by B. A. Burditt. Performed for the firv by the Boston Brigade Band at the encampment in Portsmouth, July 31 st, 14

•             Hancock Light Infantry quickstep. Boston Published by Henry Thos.Moores Lith., 1839. "Composed and dedicated to Capt. Louis

ficers, and members of the Hancock Light Infantry by Wm. Isenbeck. As performed by the Boston Brigade Band on their first parade, Oct. 28th, 1839."

•             Mammoth cod quickstep. Boston Published by Henry Prentiss; Thos. Moores Lith., 1839. "As performed by the Boston Brigade Band. Composed and respectfully dedicated to the members of the Mammoth Cod Association by B. A. Burditt. Arranged for the pianoforte by H. P. Monroe."

•             Stevens quickstep. Boston Published by Henry Prentiss ; T. Moores Lithogy., 1839. "Composed and respectfully dedicated to Captain Seriah Stevens, officers, and members of the Pulaski Guards by Zaleucus (a member of the company). As performed by the Boston Brigade Band at their encampment, Dorchester Heights, August 8th, 1839."

1840s

•             Baltimore Whig Convention Quick Step. Boston Published by Henry Prentiss ; Thayer, successor to Moore, 1840. "As performed with great success by the Boston Brigade Band. Composed and arranged for the pianoforte by Zaleucus."

•             Camp Sargent quick step. Boston Published by Geo.P.Reed ; Thayers Lith., 1840. "Performed at the encampment of the Boston Light Infantry, Springfield Mass. July 1840. Inscribed by the Boston Brigade Band to Capt. E.G.Austin, officers, and members of that corps."

•             Col. J.S.Amorys quick-step. Boston Published for the author by H.Prentiss ; Thayer, successor to Moore., ca. 1840. "As performed by the Boston Brigade Band January 1 st, 1840. Composed by B.A. Burditt for the Independent Company of Cadets & by them respectfully dedicated to their commander."

•             Halls quick step. Boston Published by Oakes & Swan ; Thayers Lithogy., 1840. "As performed by the Boston Brigade Band. Composed and arranged by T.Bricher. Respectfully dedicated to Orderly John H.Hall by the Greys."

•             The Norfolk Guards quick step. Boston Published by Oakes & Swan, 1840. "As performed by the Boston Brigade Band. Composed and respectfully dedicated to the officers and members of the Norfolk Guards by George O.Farmer."

•             The original castanet Spanish dance, la cachucha [sic] as danced by Madlle. Fanny Elssler ; performed with unbounded applause by the Boston Brigade Band. Boston H. Prentiss, 1840.

•             The Winnisimmet quickstep: As performed by the Boston Brigade Band. Boston

Published by Henry Prentiss ; Thayers Lithography, 1840.

•             Worcester Guards quickstep. Boston Published by Henry Prentiss ; Thayers Lith.,

1840. “As performed by the Boston Brigade Band, September 19th, 1840. Com

posed and respectfully dedicated to the officers and members of the Worcester Guards

by Samuel R. Leland.”

•             Funeral march. Boston Published by Henry Prentiss ; B.W.Thayers Lithography, 1841. “In memory of William H. Harrison, late President of the United States. Performed by the Boston Brigade Band, April 10th, 1841. Composed and arranged for the pianoforte by J.H.Seipp.”

•             Mount Washington quick step. Boston Published by Chas.H.Keith ; Thayer & Cos, 1842. “As performed by the Boston Brigade Band. Composed and arranged by Alexander Messinger, a pupil at the Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind. Respectfully dedicated to Dr.S.G.Howe, principal of that institution11. American Bandmasters Association Research Center

•             12. Concert programme. Boston Music Hall, July 12, 1858.

•             13. Drayley. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 7, 1900.

•             14. Drayley. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 7, 1900.

•             15. Drayley. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 7, 1900.

•             16. Drayley. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 6, 1900.

•             17. Roberts, 1897; p.462.

•             18. The Last Tones. Jacobs’ Band Monthly. Oct. 1919; p.22.

•             19. Drayley. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 6, 1900.

•             20. George Mantum Whipple. History of the Salem Light Infantry from 18051890.

Essex Institute, 1890.

•             21. The Diary of Samuel Breck, 18271833. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History

and Biography, Vol. 103, No. 2 (Apr., 1979); p.240-241.

•             22. Whipple, 1890.

•             23. Whipple, 1890.

•             24. Whipple, 1890.

•             25. Whipple, 1890; p.34.

•             26. Salem Gazette, Sept. 28, 1838.

•             27. Whipple, 1890; p.37.

•             28. Whipple, 1890; p.39.

•             29. Daily Atlas (Boston), Feb. 16, 1843.

•             30. Daily Atlas (Boston), May 25, 1844.

•             31. Whipple, 1890; p.41.

•             32. Commencement concert, Thursday evening, August 15, 1844 the Beethoven

Society of Yale College, assisted by the Boston Brigade Band, will give a vocal and

instrumental concert … [New Haven?] Hitchcock & Stafford, 1844.

•             33. http://www.ci.keene.nh.us/library/upperashuelot/

•             34. University of Vermont; Semi-Centennial Celebration-Literary Addresses

Annual Commencement-Dinners, &c. New York Times, August 8, 1854.

•             35. New England Farmer. November 1855; p.514-515.

•             36. Whipple, 1890; p.55.

•             37. Commencement of Brown University. New York Times, September 9, 1856

•             38. Boston Daily Atlas, Oct. 3, 1856.

•             39. Weekly San Joaquin Republican, May 21, 1859.

•             40. Luis Fenollosa Emilio. History of the Fifty-Fourth Regiment of Massachusetts

Volunteer Infantry, 18631865, 2nd ed. Boston Book Co., 1894; p.318.

•             41. For more information on sheet music related to the band, see catalou of the

Boston Atheneum; also Boston Public Library.

Further reading

•             Curtis Guild. Boston 60 years ago. Boston Daily Globe, Jan 17, 1900. p.6.

•             Arthur W. Drayley. Boston’s first military bands: Green Dragon band. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 6, 1900. p.6.

•             Arthur W. Drayley. Boston’s first military bands: brass instruments unknown in

Boston. Boston Daily Globe, Aug 7, 1900. p.6.

•             John Torrey Morse. Memoir of Colonel Henry Lee: with selections from his writings

and speeches. Little, Brown, and Company, 1905.

 Bourgeois Colonel John R , USMC (Ret.),

 He joined the Marine Band in 1958 as a French hornist and later served as 25th Director from 1979 to 1996. During his tenure, the Marine Band further enhanced its reputation with five landmark international trips. These performances culminated in 1990 when he led the band on its first visit to the former Soviet Union following the end of the Cold War.  

British Regimental Marches

Each unit of the British Army is represented by a regimental march . Included are British Grenadiers Ca Ira and God Bless the Prince of Wales. Marches are played during and after parades and following concerts. The Royal School of Music maintains the list of marches and the arrangements of each march requires official sanction. Marches come from various sources including folk songs and popular era song.

Brazilian Military Bands

During the colonial period of Brazil beginning in 1802 each infantry regiment established a military band paid for out of the privy purse of teh King. Up until that time the regimental officers had paid for the upkeep of the bands. In1820 the strength of each band was fixed for teh four infantry regiments at 12 players and the artillery bands had 16 musicians. The instrumental establishment included  leader (playing clarinet) 1 Eb clarinet, 2 Bb clarinets, 2 horns, 1 trumpet,1 bassoon, 1 trombone,2 small (parade) drums and 1 bass drum. Additional instrumentalists could be added to increase the size to 17. This would include 1 piccolo,2 clarinets,1 trumpet,1 bassoon and 1 serpent. The band of the Brazilian Air Force Academy was raised in 1935 with 25 musicians. In 1943 The Band of the Guards Battalion of the President was officially recognized. Later the Band of the Expedition nary Division was organized. The bands in Brazil were influenced by the Portuguese band system and in 1977 a special category of bands was introduced into  the military forces. The bands were divided into two basic categories with five separate divisions. In the “band” category there are bands numbering from 30 to 81 musicians. In the Fanfare department 3 bands numbering from 30 to 56 musicians. The bands of the Brazilian Navy were first organized in 1872. In the first instance they were ship’s bands and played when the Nval ships traveled outside of Brazil. The band of the military academy was first recognized in 1913 with 120 musicians. Later in 1932 the military academy establishment was set at 122 musicians. In 1946 the ministry of defense created the the bands in categories with “Bandas” with from 21 to 72 performers and “Fanfarras” with 21 to 26 musicians. The instrumentation of the bands varied accordance to their size.

Bugle Horns

The BUGLE HORN is described in this web site Bugle Horns”, “conk shells,” and “Signals by Drum”:
Miscellaneous Notes on Instruments

Bugle Calls-Britain

Routine Bugle Calls for the Infantry and Mounted Infantry in Camp and Quarters

Field Calls for Mounted Corps

Field Calls for Mounted Corps

Bugle Calls for Remembrance Day Services 

These Remembrance Day Service Calls are 600kb each.

Bugle Calls USA

The bugle was essential to all military communication until its displacement by electronics. The primary bugler was assigned to the headquarters staff, and kept close to the commander at the front. Soldiers were quick to learn the calls of the bugle, and on a routine day at least four, and as many as ten, were made.

Today the sound of the bugle is heard across Army Forts from early morning to late at night. Literally, the bugle regulates the soldier’s day. In a bow to the modern electronic age, the calls are recorded, then broadcast on schedule through loudspeakers located around the post. Bugle calls are musical signals that announce scheduled and certain non-scheduled events on an Army installation. Scheduled calls are prescribed by the commander and normally follow the sequence shown below. Non-scheduled calls are sounded by the direction of the commander. Individual calls sometimes have interesting histories and antecedents.

The bugle was first used as a signal instrument in the American Army during the Revolutionary War. The bugle calls evolved from Continental Army contacts with the French and English armies during the Revolutionary War. These two nations have had the most effect on our present system of calls. In the early years of our nation’s independence, each arm and branch of the Army developed its own set of “sound signals” – drum beats in the Infantry; bugle calls in the Cavalry and Artillery.

By the end of the Civil War the artillery, cavalry, and infantry were sounding bugle calls. In 1867, General Emory Upton directed Major Truman Seymour, 5th U.S. Artillery, to prepare a definitive system of calls with the object of eliminating the confusion evident during the Civil War. Major Seymour reviewed all the calls then in use in the Army. He discarded some, revised others, and finally fashioned the set of calls which have remained in use up to the present time. In 1867, bugle calls were standardized for all branches of the Army. The enlisted soldiers life was regulated by bugle calls: the daily routine included breakfast, dinner, and supper calls; fatigue call, drill call, stable and water calls, sick call, and taps. On Sundays, the church call was added to the daily schedule.

Times & Meaning

5:50 AM – Assembly of Trumpeters for Reveille [First Call] RM / MP3
The first signal for the soldiers to rise and shine. This call was historically sounded between 4:45 AM – and 6:00 AM – depending on the season. It bears a similarity to the French Cavalry call “La Garde a Vous.”

6:00 AM – Reveille RMMP3
Upon the last note of this call, the flag was raised, the morning gun fired and the men all had to assemble for morning roll call. It is the same as a French call which dates from the time of the Crusades.

6:15 AM – Stable Call
Soldiers in the cavalry would report to the stables to feed and groom their mounts.

6:30 AM – Breakfast Call [Mess Call] RM / MP3

7:00 AM – Sick Call
Soldiers who were ill were to report to the hospital for examination by the surgeon.

7:30 AM – Fatigue Call
Those soldiers appointed to a work party would report to their assignments.

8:50 AM – Guard Mounting, Assembly of Trumpeters
First call for “Guard Mount”, or the changing of the 24-hour guard detail.

8:55 AM – Guard Mounting, Assembly of Guard Detail
Men assigned to guard duty assemble in front of their respective barracks.

9:00 AM – Guard Mounting, Adjutant’s Call RM / MP3
The guard details were marched to the guardhouse where the Guard Mount ceremony took place.

9:15 AM – Water Call
Horses received their watering.

9:55 AM – Drill, First Call
Preparatory call for soldiers assigned to morning drill.

10:00 AM – Drill, Assembly
Soldiers would practice the Manual of Arms, bayonet drills and marching. New recruits would be taught more basic skills.

11:00 AM – Recall from Drill RM / MP3
Morning drill was to cease.

11:30 AM – Recall from Fatigue RM / MP3
Morning work parties were to cease at the sound of this call.

12:00 Noon. Dinner Call [Mess Call] RM / MP3
Dinner was the main meal of the day.

1:00 PM – Fatigue Call
Afternoon work parties.

1:30 PM – First Sergeant;s Call
Company First Sergeant;s were to report to the post headquarters with their “Morning Reports” on the number of their men sick in the hospital, on guard duty, on drill or fatigue, or on special assignment.

2:00 PM – Mounted Drill, Boots and Saddles
This signal alerted cavalrymen to put on their riding boots and saddle their horses.

2:30 PM – Dismounted Drill
Cavalrymen are to practice all movements on foot before attempting them on horseback. This drill also allows cavalry men to prepare for battle on foot.

3:30 PM – Recall from Drill RM / MP3
Afternoon drill was to cease.

4:30 PM – Water and Stable Call
Horses received their afternoon watering and cavalrymen repeated the morning care of their horses.

5:00 PM – Recall from Fatigue RM / MP3
Afternoon work parties were to cease at the sound of this call.

5:15 PM – Assembly of Trumpeters for Retreat
Preparatory call for Retreat Parade.

5:30 PM – Assembly RM / MP3
The entire garrison would turn out for the Retreat ceremony. The actual lowering of the flag and playing of Retreat would occur at sunset.

5:45 PM – Adjutant’s Call RM / MP3
The Captains march the companies (musicians playing) to the regimental parade grounds, where they take positions in the order of battle. After reporting to the senior officer present, the Retreat ceremony would commence.

6:00 PM – Retreat RM / MP3
The flag-lowering ceremony.

8:55 PM – Assembly of Trumpeters for Tattoo

9:00 PM – Tattoo RM / MP3
“Tattoo” was the signal for the men to prepare for bed and to secure the post.

9:05 PM – Assembly RM / MP3
Bed check, the last roll call of the day.

9:15 PM – Taps RM / MP3
By the final note of “Taps” all lights were to be extinguished, all men bedded down in their bunks, and all loud talking was to cease.

Additional Calls include:

  •    To The Colors RM / MP3 – To the Color is a bugle call to render honors to the nation. It is used when no band is available to render honors, or in ceremonies requiring honors to the nation more than once. To the Color commands all the same courtesies as the National Anthem.
  •    Attention RM / MP3 – Sound as a warning that troops are about to be called to attention.
  •    Carry On RM / MP3
  •    TO ARMS — Signals all troops to fall under arms at designated places without delay.
  •    Charge — Wav
  •    Church Call — It is exactly the same as the French “Church Call.” It predates the Seymour revisions of 1867, having been adapted from the “Sonneries de Chasseurs d’Orleans of 1845.

 

Tattoo

Tattoo originated during the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648, and in German was called “Zapfenstreich.” At 9:00 P.M., as the call was sounded, all bungs (zapfen) had to be replaced in their barrels, signifying the end of nightly drinking. The provost guard then drew a chalk line (streich) across the bung so that it could not be reopened without evidence of tampering. Tattoo is the longest U.S. Army call, consisting of twenty- eight measures. The first eight are from the French call “Extinction de Feux” and the last twenty measures are from the British “First Post” – in turn adapted from an old Neapolitan Cavalry call “Il Silencio”.

Retreat 

The bugle call sounded at retreat was first used in the French Army and dates back to the crusades. When you hear it, you are listening to a beautiful melody that has come to symbolize the finest qualities of the soldiers of nearly 900 years. Retreat has always been at sunset and its purpose was to notify the sentries to start challenging until sunrise, and to tell the rank and file to go to their quarters and stay there. In our times the ceremony remains as a tradition. When you are outdoors and hear retreat played, you face toward the flag if you can see it and stand at parade rest. If the flag is not within sight. then face toward the music.
The History of Taps

The melody that gave the present day “Taps” was made during the Civil War by Union General Danial Adams Butterfield, in command of a brigade camped at Harrison Landing, Virginia, near Richmond. Up to that time, the U.S. Army infantry call to end the day was the French final call “L’Extinction des feux”. General Butterfield decided the “lights out” music was too formal to signal the end of the day. One day in July 1862, he recalled the “Tattoo” music and hummed a version of it to an aide who wrote the melody down. Butterfield asked the brigade bugler, Oliver W. Norton, to play the notes, and after listening, he lengthened and shortened them while keeping the original melody. Thereafter, General Butterfield ordered Norton to play this new call at the end of each day instead of the regular call. The music was heard and appreciated by the other brigades, who asked for copies and adopted it for own use. It was even adopted by the Confederates.

The first time “Taps” was played at a military funeral may have been in Virginia, soon after Butterfield composed it. Union Captain John Tidball, head of an artillery battery, ordered it played for the burial of a connoneer killed in action. Not wanting to reveal the position of the battery, Tidball substituted “Taps” for the three rifle volleys fired over the grave.

Major Seymour, in 1867, was evidently not aware of General Butterfield’s composition. The major did not include it in his system of calls, and it was not officially adopted until 1874. Considered to be the most beautiful of calls, Taps provides a fitting close to the soldier’s day, and when the time comes, to his or her final departure from the ranks. The melody was made the official Army bugle call after the war, but was not given the name “Taps” until 1874.

Source “U.S. Army Military District of Columbia Fact Sheet”

Taps’ Lyrics

While there are no official words to the bugle call “Taps”, the commonly used lyrics are:

Fading light dims the sight,
And a star gems the sky, gleaming bright.
From afar drawing nigh — Falls the night.

Day is done, gone the sun,
From the lake, from the hills, from the sky;
All is well, safely rest, God is nigh.

Then good night, peaceful night,
Till the light of the dawn shineth bright;
God is near, do not fear — Friend, good night.

Retreat

Retreat is a daily ceremony held at all army installations as the national flag is lowered at the end of the work day. It is scheduled at a definite time in late afternoon: the precise time left to the discretion of the installation commander. At fort monmouth the time designated is 1700 hours (5:00 pm). The ceremonies of retreat in the afternoon, coupled with reveille in the morning constitute a dignified homage to the national flag from its raising to its lowering. The bugle call “retreat” is sounded just before the actual lowering of the flag. At the last note of this call, a cannon is fired. Then, if a band is present, the national anthem will be rendered. In the absence of a band, the bugle call “to the colors” is substituted. As the anthem, or “to the colors” is sounded, the flag is lowered. The lowering of the flag will be regulated so as to be completed with the last note of the music. All personnel within sight or sound of the ceremony will come to attention and render the appropriate salute, facing the flag. Vehicular traffic will come to a halt, and the driver or individual in charge of the vehicle will dismount to render honors. The retreat ceremony is known to have been in use in the American army since the revolutionary war. At that time it was sounded by drums-the normal musical instrument found in the infantry units of that period. The history of the evening gun is much older. Initially it was not connected with a flag lowering. One legend has it that it was initially fired to drive away evil spirits. That would put its origin back in the middle ages when gunpowder was introduced into europe, and much earlier in the orient. It seems logical in more modern times that the firing of a gun near sunset was intended to call the troops back to the fort or camp from their fatigue duties of the day. The booming of the cannon could be heard at a greater distance than the sound of either drum or bugle. Finally, a parade can be held in conjunction with the retreat ceremony. The combination of ranks of smartly uniformed troops, the sound of the evening gun and the band playing the national anthem constitutes one of the most inspiring of

 

 

 

 

 

1 Comment »

Songs of the Season from Altissimo

TOP

Songs of the Season, Part I

Dec 02
Posted by MilitaryMusic.com in Album Reviews, Band Talk, Community

Last week I had the pleasure to see snow.

Ever since I moved to Nashville at the start of November, I was afraid that my migration south would lead to mild winters with nothing but cold rain and ice. Even though it didn’t stick, it gave me hope that one day I would wake up to a winter wonderland in my new home.

It also got me listening to Christmas music.

The music of the holiday season is a little strange if you think about it. I have trouble thinking of any other music that is only socially acceptable during a narrow window of time. And even though it only exists in the public eye for about two months of the year, it spans nearly all possible musical genres. Everyone from the United States Marine Band to Justin Bieber has released a holiday album, and while there are countless volumes of recordings, they all have roots to a few handfuls of original carols and songs. The bands of the U.S. military have recorded many holiday albums, and reflects the genre’s range of styles. During this holiday season, I want to explore the various types of holiday music that can be found on Altissimo!’s website, to demonstrate the wide variety of subgenres offered by military bands and their component organizations.

We’ll start at the more traditional end of the spectrum. While my own musical tastes are somewhat unusual, I consider myself a purist when it comes to holiday music. I’d much rather listen to a small choir sing Silent Night (preferably in its traditional German) than some other-worldly electro-punk pop version of the same song (which, for the record, doesn’t appear to exist anywhere… yet). A great example of the simple, four-part harmony version of traditional carols is the aptly named album Caroling.

Since the Eisenhower Administration, The United States Air Force Band Singing Sergeants have been caroling at the White House every December for the Washington D.C. community, and Caroling is their way of presenting their favorite carols in a recorded medium. The album does an excellent job of presenting traditional Christmas carols, and one Hanukkah song, in the simplest of forms. It transports you to a quiet city street on Christmas Eve, with a band of carolers roaming door-to-door. The disc features a few more popular songs, such as Jingle Bells, Deck the Hall, and Away in A Manger, but it focuses on more traditional tunes. Songs such as Fum, fum, fum and Somerset Wassail are traditional European carols (Spanish and English respectively), and are not songs you typically hear on all-Christmas radio stations, but are part of the larger Christmas caroling tradition. The group also performs Carol of the Bells, one of my personal favorite holiday songs as far as traditional carols is concerned.

But even though the Singing Sergeants are highlighting more traditional carols, they still offer a few more modernized renditions of some classics. Their version of The Holly and the Ivy uses tasteful jazz harmony and percussion, and still has that traditional caroling feel to it. The album’s rendition of Go Tell it on the Mountain, a song that I don’t usually associate with the holidays, is sung in its original spiritual style, and features a piano accompaniment. All of the small departures from the main caroling idiom help to spice up the album, separating it from other CD’s of Christmas carols.

You can order Caroling at http://www.militarymusic.com. It’s really perfect if you’re a purist, or if you just enjoy a little choral music during this special time of year.

Like I said, all holiday season I will be reviewing and discussing all corners of Altissimo!’s holiday music collection, touching upon whatever you need to celebrate this December.

Thank you all so much for your support.

-Brian R. Denu

Label Manager, Altissimo! Recordings

brian@militarymusic.com

No Comments »